Pathogenesis Of Pancreatic Cancer In Chronic Pancreatitis
It has long been accepted that the chronic inflammatory processes which characterize CP promote metaplasia and neoplastic transformation. Studies have attempted to define the progression of inflammation to malignancy in the setting of chronic pancreatitis . It is believed that the cytokines and reactive oxygen species that are generated during inflammation cause DNA damage. Chronic inflammation leads to accumulation of DNA damage, finally progressing to oncogenic mutations in K-ras, p16 and p53 resulting in malignant transformation. However, this explanation is too simplistic considering that malignancy occurs at different rates in different types of CP, thereby suggesting that alternate mechanisms might exist.
Hereditary pancreatitis is associated with multiple mutations in cationic trypsinogen and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis has mutations in SPINK-1. Both of these mutations have been implicated in the development of PC .
Diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for PC . Whether the coexistence of CP with DM increases the overall risk of PC is unclear. In a population based cohort study by Liao et al., risk of PC in patients with CP and DM combined was higher than that for patients with CP alone . This finding is confounded by the fact that diabetes could be a manifestation of PC in CP, rather than a risk factor.
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Fatty Pancreas Can Cause Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic steatosis can accelerate the development of pancreatic cancer , according to a new paper by Cedars-Sinai investigators.
Fat accumulation in the pancreas is an understudied condition that can lead to pancreatic cancer, according to a new paper by Cedars-Sinai investigators published in EBioMedicine, which is part of The Lancet Discovery Science suite of journals.
Pancreatic steatosis involves the infiltration of fat into the pancreas or pancreatic inflammation. Its worldwide prevalence has nearly tripled from 1975 to 2016, according to the World Health Organizationa trend that has been linked to rising obesity rates. Studies report anywhere from 10% to 58% of the worldwide population may have pancreatic steatosis.
âUnlike nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which is really well studied, pancreatic steatosis is unexplored and lacks guidelines for diagnosis and treatment,â said Emily Truong, MD, lead author of the paper and an internal medicine resident physician. âUnderstanding what causes pancreatic steatosis and how those same mechanisms might lead to pancreatic cancer is extremely important because these mechanisms might explain other obesity-driven cancers.
Truong authored the paper with Stephen Pandol, MD, professor of Medicine, director of Basic and Translational Pancreas Research and program director of the Gastroenterology Fellowship Program, and Christie Y. Jeon, ScD, research associate professor of Medicine.
Stephen Pandol, MD
Symptoms And Treatment For Pancreatitis
Acute pancreatitis comes on suddenly and may cause symptoms like a fever, pain in the upper abdomen, pain that radiates into the back, and abdominal pain that gets worse after eating. Acute attacks may also cause vomiting and nausea. Chronic pancreatitis causes upper abdominal pain as well, but it may come and go and be less severe. It also causes weight loss, and stools that are oily and smelly.
Pancreatitis can be diagnosed by checking the blood for elevated levels of certain enzymes and imaging techniques to look at the pancreas and gallbladder. Sudden attacks of pancreatitis are usually treated by fasting, using pain medications and intravenous fluids. These measures can bring an attack under control so that doctors can treat whatever is causing the attack. Treatment for acute pancreatitis is administered in the hospital over the course of a few days.
Treatment may include surgery to remove gallstones or other obstructions that are causing the inflammation or to remove fluid or damaged tissue from the pancreas. Other treatments may include addressing alcoholism, quitting smoking, or using diet or medications to lower triglyceride or calcium levels or to treat an infection.
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Type 2 Diabetes Can Up Your Chances Of Pancreatic Cancer
Not all people with type 2 diabetes will develop pancreatic cancer. But If youve had this kind of diabetes for more than five years, your risk factor goes up 1.5 times. If youve recently been diagnosed with diabetes, talk to your doctor about exams to rule out pancreatic cancer. Studies show that up to 25 percent of pancreatic cancer patients have been diagnosed recently with diabetes, or their symptoms have gotten worse, says Klein.
How To Help Gut Recover After Antibiotics
Every dose of antibiotics wipes out a large portion of bacteria throughout your entire body, including the good guys. After that, the good microbes and the unfriendly ones slowly rebuild, and if all goes well, they come back into balance. But, it takes time, and they dont always colonize in harmony.
To keep one strain of gut flora from taking over, take a probiotic supplement while youre taking antibiotics. The friendly probiotic bacteria may not colonize in the gut, but they can still help you through a course of antibiotics.
If you time your probiotic dosage right, the good bacteria that are just passing through will be able to do their job and keep the bad guys in check. A few will even survive and be able to continue to keep the balance until the next dose of antibiotics wipes them out.
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What Probiotics For Antibiotic Side Effects
Typically, it will take the body time to balance the microbiome to healthy, diverse bacteria levels. In fact, research shows that it takes about 6 months to recover from the damage done by antibiotics. And even then, the body might not even be back to its pre-antibiotic state.
Saccharomyces boulardii, a probiotic yeast is particularly good at preventing and alleviating antibiotic-associated diarrhea and travellers diarrhea. Its also a friend to your gut bacteria that supports good bacteria and prevents inflammation.
Lactobacillus acidophilus, a probiotic bacterium best known for being in yoghurt is also great for your gut. Studies show that its good at treating and preventing infections, and reducing the digestive side effects of antibiotics.
Other bacteria that help recover from antibiotic use include:
Pain In The Stomach Or Back
Pancreatic cancer can cause a dull pain in your upper tummy , which may spread to your back.
To begin with, the pain may come and go, but as the tumour becomes larger and more advanced, the pain may be more constant and last longer.
The pain is often worse when you lie down or after youâve eaten. You may also have pain or tenderness in your abdomen if your liver, pancreas or gallbladder are enlarged.
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How Serious Is Pancreas Problems
In severe cases, acute pancreatitis can cause bleeding, serious tissue damage, infection, and cysts. Severe pancreatitis can also harm other vital organs such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys. Chronic pancreatitis is long-lasting inflammation. It most often happens after an episode of acute pancreatitis.
Autophagy And Development Of Pancreatic Cancer
Earlier in this review, the role of autophagy in development of acute and CP was discussed. Autophagy also plays a complex part in the development of pancreatic cancer, with reports indicating both pro-tumorigenic and tumor-suppressive roles . PDAC cells have higher basal levels of autophagy than most other types of tumor cells, facilitating their survival under stressful conditions including nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, metabolic stress and chemotherapy . As the tumor environment is hypoxic, autophagy is often induced by hypoxia-inducible factor- signaling, or adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase , the latter also being associated with pancreatitis . Elevated levels of autophagy in PDAC cells are critical in removal of ROS, preventing DNA damage and maintaining energy homeostasis, thus optimizing PDAC cell survival and proliferation .
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Chronic Pancreatitis Can Be A Risk Factor For Pancreatic Cancer
What is pancreatitis? Pancreatitis simply means inflammation of the pancreas, the gland that produces enzymes that help digestion and hormones that help regulate the way your body processes sugar. Though most people with pancreatitis never develop pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis defined as a long-term inflammation of the pancreas has been linked with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, particularly in smokers. The risk of developing pancreatic cancer appears to be highest in rare types of early-onset pancreatitis such as hereditary pancreatitis and tropical pancreatitis. But even though the link between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer has been established, one 2010 study found that over a 20-year period, only around five percent of patients with chronic pancreatitis will develop pancreatic cancer.
What about patients who experience acute pancreatitis, defined as pancreatitis that appears suddenly and lasts for days? Acute pancreatitis symptoms can include abdominal pain that radiates toward the back and is worse after eating, increased pulse, fever, nausea, vomiting, and stomach tenderness related to pancreatitis pain. Experts say that those who have only a single attack of acute pancreatitis without developing recurrent pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis do not progress to pancreatic cancer. That said, more research is still needed to determine a definite relationship between acute and chronic pancreatitis.
Operative Data And Postoperative Complications
Operating time, blood loss, blood transfusion, type of surgery, complications in terms of pancreatic fistula , hemorrhage and bile fistula were showed in Table . Furthermore, complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification , hospital stay after operation is recorded. There was no difference in the operative and postoperative data between the cancer and non-cancer group.
Table 2 Operative data and postoperative complications
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How Else Can I Replenish My Gut Bacteria
What you eat has a big impact on your gut microbiota. But to give healthy gut bacteria their best chance, there are some other things you can do as well.
To restore gut flora after antibiotics, make efforts to keep mental stress under control. Research has shown that emotions like sadness and elation can trigger changes in the gut . Scientists call it the gut-brain axis, a connection that can potentially affect gut flora.
Last but not least, sleep quality has an impact on gut health. Poor sleep quality or sleep deprivation can negatively impact the gut microbiota. This effect is also believed to be mediated via the gut-brain axis. Lack of sleep can trigger sugar cravings, and sugar feeds bad bacteria in the gut.
The bottom line is that taking antibiotics is not entirely avoidable and the negative impact of antibiotics on the gut microbiota is well known. But by eating a healthy diet including whole foods, fruits and vegetables, and fermented foods taking probiotics and prebiotics keeping stress under control and getting enough good-quality sleep, you can restore a healthy gut flora after antibiotics, boost your immune system, and enhance your overall health.
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How Can I Prevent Pancreatic Cancer
We dont know what actually causes pancreatic cancer, so its difficult to know how to prevent it. However, you can change your day-to-day behaviors to become healthier. These tips may help reduce the risk of getting pancreatic cancer:
- Dont smoke. If you do smoke or use tobacco in any form, try to quit.
- Try to reach and maintain a normal weight by eating healthy and exercising.
- Drink alcohol in moderation, or quit drinking altogether.
- Try to avoid getting diabetes. If you have it, control your blood sugar levels.
- Use safety equipment if your work exposes you to toxins.
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Screening Program For High
The Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer has one of the largest studies to screen individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer and is one of the world leaders in prevention of pancreatic cancer. Our physicians are leading an international consortium of medical centers in a collaborative, worldwide screening effort.
Additional risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include:
What Causes Cancer? Cancer Mutations and Random DNA Copying Errors
Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists report data from a new study providing evidence that random DNA copying mistakes account for nearly two-thirds of the mutations that cause cancer. The scientists also explain how this relates to pancreatic cancer.
What To Know About Pancreatic Cancer
Dr. Mitchell says, âPancreatic cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland located in the abdomen, behind the stomach. The pancreas has two main functions: to produce enzymes that help digest food and hormones, such as insulin, that regulate blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually starts in the cells lining the pancreasâ ducts. These cells are called exocrine cells. Less often, pancreatic cancer begins in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas, called islet cells. When pancreatic cancer begins in the exocrine cells, it is called exocrine pancreatic cancer. When it starts in the islet cells, it is called an islet cell tumor or neuroendocrine tumor. Most pancreatic cancers are exocrine tumors.â
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Using The Breast Cancer Drug Lynparza
In March 2016, Mary Phillips, 59, was diagnosed with metastatic pancreatic cancer. At first she took the latest combination chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. Then she enrolled in a clinical trial of the drug Lynparza. Because the medication was already being used by some patients with breast or ovarian cancer , researchers thought that it could be useful for pancreatic cancer patients with the same mutations.
Early findings in this area have been promising. A 2019 study, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, reported that patients with such a BRCA mutation who took Lynparza for metastatic pancreatic cancer had no new tumor growth, and no spread of their cancer, for twice as many months as those not receiving the drug.
Still, there was no difference in long-term survival past 18 months. In December 2019, the Food and Drug Administration approved the medication for maintenance therapy for this group of patients.
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Symptoms Of Pancreatic Cancer
In the early stages, a tumour in the pancreas doesn’t usually cause any symptoms, which can make it difficult to diagnose.
It’s important to remember that these symptoms can be caused by many different conditions, and aren’t usually the result of cancer. But you should contact your GP if you’re concerned, or if these symptoms start suddenly.
The first noticeable symptoms of pancreatic cancer are often:
- pain in the back or stomach area which may come and go at first and is often worse when you lie down or after you’ve eaten
- unexpected weight loss
- jaundice the most obvious sign is yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes it also causes your urine to be dark yellow or orange and your stools to be pale-coloured
Other possible symptoms of pancreatic cancer include:
- nausea and vomiting
Read more about treating pancreatic cancer.
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Pancreatic Cancer: The Basics
The pancreas is a gland in the abdomen that makes enzymes for digestion and hormones that control sugar levels in the blood. Benign or malignant tumors may form if the process of cellular division in this gland breaks down. Malignant tumors of the pancreas are called pancreatic cancer.
About 62,000 Americans will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer this year, according to the American Cancer Society . Pancreatic cancer accounts for 3 percent of all cancers in the United States and for about 7 percent of all cancer deaths.
The two major types of pancreatic cancer are the exocrine tumor and the neuroendocrine tumor, or islet cell tumor. They are determined by the type of cell in which they originate, and specific risk factors may be related to each type.
Initial signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer are often vague and include:
Include Prebiotics And Probiotics In Your Diet
These good-for-you types of bacteria are a sure way to replenish good bacteria after antibiotics. Prebiotics work alongside probiotics to help restore the good bacteria in your gut in order to keep your health in tip-top shape. Prebiotics and probiotics can be incorporated into your diet through supplements or by eating certain probiotic- and prebiotic-rich foods:
- Probiotic-rich Foods greek yogurt, tempeh, kimchi, kefir, kombucha, raw cheese, and miso
- Prebiotic-rich Foods rye, asparagus, bananas, oats, Jerusalem artichoke, chicory root, yacon root
While common sense would tell you to down these foods at the same time as antibiotics to cancel them out, thats not how our body works. In order for your body to actually benefit from the prebiotics and repopulate good bacteria, prebiotics should be eaten a few hours either before or after you take your antibiotics. If antibiotics are taken along with prebiotics, the medication will kill the good bacteria immediately instead of allowing your gut to absorb it properly.
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What Is The Skins Natural Ph Level
A healthy skin microbiome has a pH level of 5, which is slightly acidic to curb the growth of pathogens on the skin.
In case you donât remember from highschool chemistry, the term âpHâ in pH level refers to the âpotential of hydrogenâ and is measured on a scale of 0 to 14.
Levels ranging from 0 to 6 are considered acidic, levels from 8 to 14 are considered fundamental, and a pH of 7 is considered neutral.
However, it is essential to remember that the skinâs pH keeps on changing according to a personâs:
- Or when using harsh soaps and topical solutions.
Therefore, it is always recommended to use skincare products that are gentle and do not compromise the skinâs average pH level.