Effect Of Hormonal Changes On Breasts
As women develop from pre-puberty through puberty, pregnancy and to menopause, the breasts will be affected by a variety of fluctuations in hormones.
During puberty, hormones produced by the ovaries cause growth and development of the breast. After puberty, the hormones oestrogen and progesterone will change throughout a womans monthly menstrual cycle. This may cause women to have swollen or tender breasts at different times of the month.
During pregnancy the body will produce additional oestrogen and progesterone, which trigger further growth and development of the breast to prepare mothers for breastfeeding.
Around the time of menopause , the ovaries stop producing female hormones including oestrogen. Without oestrogen, the breast tissue decreases in size. After menopause , monthly menstrual periods stop.
When To See A Doctor For A Breast Lump
Girls and young women should see a doctor if:
- They develop a painful lump on their breast
- They find a painless lump on their breast that doesnt go away for several weeks
Most of the time there is little to worry about when a child develops a breast lump, but it should still be examined by a doctor.
Breast Lumps In Adolescents: Causes
- Breast masses in teens are almost always benign .
- Breast cancer is very rare in teens
- Fibroadenoma: most breast masses in teens are fibroadenomas. They are 1 inch oval or round, rubbery, non-tender mass. Most often in upper-outer quadrant of breast. Not associated with breast cancer. Natural course: 50% go away within 5 years, others need removal.
- Juvenile fibroadenomas: breast masses that are larger than 2 inches in size. Benign, but need to be removed by surgery.
- Breast abscess: this is a red, painful lump. Main cause is Staph bacteria. Main triggers are nipple injury, nipple piercing or lactation . Needs oral antibiotics and needle removal of the pus.
- Breast collections of blood from injury: may take weeks or months to resolve.
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Financial Planning For Out
Cancer can take a toll, physically and emotionally, but it can also lead to financial toxicity, which is a term for how the cost of cancer care can affect your quality of life.
Due to high medical costs, especially for those without insurance, many people do not take their medications as prescribed, and some do not even complete their treatment course. Others cut back significantly on expenses such as food, clothing, or utilities.
Many people go into debt by taking out extra credit cards, refinancing a home, or exhausting their savings. The bankruptcy rate is 2.5 higher for cancer survivors than for people with no history of cancer.
Know that there are resources to help you through these difficult times. The following organizations have financial planning programs available that may help you manage your expenses and decrease the burden you face:
The ‘look Good Feel Better’ Program
The American Cancer Society has teamed up with the Personal Care Products Council and the National Cosmetology Association to create “Look Good Feel Better.” This program teaches beauty techniques that can boost your appearance and how you feel about yourself after your cancer treatment.
For more information, call 800-395-LOOK, or go to the website.
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Contact Doctor During Office Hours
- Other breast lumps
- Could be pregnant
- Change in shape or appearance of breast
- Nipple discharge that is clear or milky
- Breast pain and cause is unknown. Exception: continue if only occurs before menstrual periods or with vigorous exercise.
- Age 13 or older with no breast buds or breast tissue
- You have other questions or concerns
Treatment Of Breast Cancer In Teens
Doctors treat secretory adenocarcinoma by surgically cutting out the cancer while sparing as much breast tissue as possible.
Depending on the type of therapy and how long it lasts, it can affect your fertility and increase your chances of other cancers.
You can still breastfeed after breast or nipple surgery. However, some people may produce less milk than others.
85 percent . This means that theyre 85 percent as likely to live another 5 years as 15- to 19-year-old U.S. girls without breast cancer.
The 5-year relative survival rate for women 20 years old and older who were diagnosed between 2011 to 2017 is 90.3 percent .
Because breast cancer is so rare in teens, doctors and teens may adopt a watch-and-wait approach, and delay treatment. That may account for the lower survival rate for teens with breast cancer compared with adult women with the condition.
Breast cancer is extremely rare in teens, but you should still check abnormalities. Adopting certain habits now can also help prevent breast cancer later. These include:
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Living With Breast Cancer
Being diagnosed with breast cancer can affect daily life in many ways, depending on what stage its at and the treatment you will have.
How people cope with the diagnosis and treatment varies from person to person. There are several forms of support available, if you need it.
Forms of support may include:
- family and friends, who can be a powerful support system
- communicating with other people in the same situation
- finding out as much as possible about your condition
- not trying to do too much or overexerting yourself
- making time for yourself
Find out more about living with breast cancer.
Start Breast Exams Early And Mammograms At 40
You should have annual breast exams at the doctors office starting at 18 and have annual mammograms starting at 40. You should also be examining your own breasts monthly, at the end of your menstrual period when breasts are least tender.
You should know your breasts better than anybody, says Shockney, adding that you should alert your doctor if you notice any changes, such as a lump, swelling, nipple discharge or nipple inversion.
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Pregnancy During And After Breast Cancer
Pregnant women who receive standard chemotherapies for breast cancer during the second and third trimester have outcomes comparable to non-pregnant breast cancer patients .
The desire for future pregnancy can affect selection of treatment protocol. One multicenter study showed that 19% of young breast cancer patients refused endocrine therapy, or chose one chemotherapy regimen over another, based on the wish to bear children in the future . Pregnancy following a diagnosis of breast cancer does not impact mortality. A large meta-analysis showed a lower relative risk of death among women who bore a child after a breast cancer diagnosis . The POSITIVE study is prospectively evaluating outcomes of pregnancy following breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Gene Mutation
Mutations in two separate genes for breast cancer have been identified. Fewer than 1% of women have these gene mutations. About 5 to 10% of women with breast cancer have one of these gene mutations. If a woman has one of these mutations, her lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is about 50 to 85%. The risk of developiing breast cancer by age 80 is about 72% with a BRCA1 mutation and about 69% with a BRCA2 mutation. However, if such a woman develops breast cancer, her chances of dying of breast cancer are not necessarily greater than those of any other woman with breast cancer.
These mutations are most common among Ashkenazi Jews.
Women likely to have one of these mutations are those who have at least two close, usually first-degree relatives who have had breast or ovarian cancer. For this reason, routine screening for these mutations does not appear necessary, except in women who have such a family history.
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What Was Your First Cancer Symptom
What are some general signs and symptoms of cancer?Fatigue or extreme tiredness that doesnt get better with rest.Weight loss or gain of 10 pounds or more for no known reason.Eating problems such as not feeling hungry, trouble swallowing, belly pain, or nausea and vomiting.Swelling or lumps anywhere in the body.More items
Breast Cancer Treatment In Teens
Treatment for breast cancer in teens depends on how far the disease has spread and the teens general health and personal circumstances. All of these factors play an important role in what steps are taken. Some of the treatment options include:
- Surgery In these cases, a lumpectomy or mastectomy is conducted. A lumpectomy includes the removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue. A mastectomy involves the removal of the whole breast. Depending on how far the disease has spread, either option may be best.
- Radiation This therapy is usually used following a lumpectomy. Using cancer-killing beams, radiation therapy targets undetected cancer cells further reducing the risk of cancer returning.
- Hormone This therapy is effective for those breast cancers that are affected by hormones in the blood. It utilizes drugs that block estrogen and/or progesterone.
- Chemotherapy This is usually administered after breast surgery but before radiation, and uses drugs directly injected into the vein via a needle or pill to target and kill cancer cells.
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What Are Signs You May Have Cancer
SymptomsFatigue.Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin.Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain.Skin changes, such as yellowing, darkening or redness of the skin, sores that wont heal, or changes to existing moles.Changes in bowel or bladder habits.Persistent cough or trouble breathing.More items
Breast Cancer Stages 04
Doctors use stages of breast cancer to describe how far along the cancer has grown or spread. Stages range from 0 to 4 . Each stage has further subcategories of A, B, or C.
Stage 0 The cancer is noninvasive and shows no evidence of leaving the part of the breast where it began. One type of stage 0 cancer is ductal carcinoma in situ .
Stage 1 The cancer cells are spreading to surrounding breast tissue, but the group of cancer cells or the tumor remains very small. It is usually easily treatable.
Stage 2 The cancer has begun to grow but it remains only in the breast or nearby lymph nodes. Treatment is not usually very difficult.
Stage 3 The cancer has begun invading lymph nodes, muscle, and other body tissue near the breast, but it has not reached organs farther away. Treatments vary according to the person and type of breast cancer.
Stage 4 The cancer is very advanced and has spread to several organs or other parts of the body. Stage 4 breast cancer is considered incurable, but women may live several years or more with ongoing treatment.
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Breast Cancer
The signs and symptoms of breast cancer include:
- A new lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the armpit
- A change in the size or shape of the breast
- A dimple or puckering in the skin of the breast. It may look like the skin of an orange.
- A nipple turned inward into the breast
- Nipple discharge other than breast milk. The discharge might happen suddenly, be bloody, or happen in only one breast.
- Scaly, red, or swollen skin in the nipple area or the breast
- Pain in any area of the breast
Male Breast Cancer Is On The Rise
“Breast cancer accounts for less than 1% of the cancers diagnosed in American men each year, but studies suggest that the incidence of male breast cancer is rising,” says Dr. Darcourt.
In fact, one study suggests that breast cancer in men has increased 25% over the last 25 years.
That same study also found that men were more likely to present with a more advanced stage breast cancer at the time of diagnosis as women. Still, male breast cancer is caught in the early stages more often than not. This is important since early-stage breast cancer is easier to treat.
“Although male breast cancer is certainly one of the rarer forms of cancer, it’s important for men to be aware of it,” Dr. Darcourt stresses.
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Symptoms Of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer can have several symptoms, but the first noticeable symptom is usually a lump or area of thickened breast tissue.
Most breast lumps are not cancerous, but it’s always best to have them checked by a doctor.
You should also see a GP if you notice any of these symptoms:
- a change in the size or shape of one or both breasts
- discharge from either of your nipples, which may be streaked with blood
- a lump or swelling in either of your armpits
- dimpling on the skin of your breasts
- a rash on or around your nipple
- a change in the appearance of your nipple, such as becoming sunken into your breast
Breast pain is not usually a symptom of breast cancer.
Find out more about the symptoms of breast cancer.
So Should You Supplement
Vitamin D is important for everything from bone health to depressionnot just cancer risk. Plus, many Americans could be deficient.
A lot of us are vitamin D deficient because many people are not taking multivitamins, are overweight, and are not physically active , says Dr. Balija. If we’re not giving our body what it needs, our bodies can’t function optimally. We cant fight infection or disease optimally and we can’t fight cancer optimally.
Dr. Bao notes that checking vitamin D levels is a routine part of the cancer care she provides she recommends getting your D levels tested if you think you’re low. If you live in a Northern climate or notice symptoms such as fatigue, bone pain, or muscle weakness, you might be deficient.
If you decide to supplement, heres what that looks like: For people 19 to 70, the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin D is 600 international units . If youre older than 70, its 800 IU. But its usually fine to go highereven well above that level. The National Institutes of Health notes that the tolerable upper intake level of the vitaminbasically what you could take before you might see negative health effectsis 4,000 IU for adults.
Whether you take D supplements or not, its best to think about vitamin D as one piece of the health puzzle. Everybody wants that magic pill or quick fix when really whats going to optimize your immune system and help it fight cancer is a healthy lifestyle, says Dr. Balija.
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Prevention Diagnosis And Treatment Of Breast Cancer
Knowing what kind of care you could need at each level of your cancer diagnosis is important.
Preventive screening: A mammogram is the most effective screening tool for breast cancer. Other imaging studies, such as breast ultrasound and breast MRI , could also occur if a person has symptoms, has dense breasts, is considered high risk, or has an abnormality that is found by a mammogram.
How Can I Be Sure That My Cancer Will Be Detected Before It Has Spread
While you cant prevent breast cancer altogether, there are certain things you can do to reduce your risk of discovering it at an advanced stage. For example:
- Get routine mammograms. The American Cancer Society recommends having a baseline mammogram at age 35, and a screening mammogram every year after age 40.
- Examine your breasts every month after age 20. Youll become familiar with the contours and feel of your breasts and will be more alert to changes.
- Have your breasts examined by a healthcare provider at least once every three years after age 20, and every year after age 40. Clinical breast exams can detect lumps that mammograms may not find.
What Is Breast Cancer In Children
Breast cancer occurs when cancer cells grow in breast tissue. The disease is most commonly found in women.
The risk of breast cancer increases with age, with the highest risk between ages 70 and 74 years, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Cases in children are rarer but not impossible.
Often when children have tumors in their breast tissue, the tumors arent cancerous. Instead, theyre what is known as fibroadenomas.
Fibroadenomas are benign and dont cause symptoms. Children with fibroadenomas still need to be monitored because, rarely, they can grow and become cancerous.
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Is Breast Cancer A Death Sentence
Breast cancer is curable, its okay to be afraid to get screened but dont let fear cause you to lose your life. Breast cancer doesnt have to be a death sentence. Read on breast cancer, go and get screened by a medical professional at least once a year, learn to examine your breast by yourself and do it regularly.
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Could I Get Breast Cancer
Breast cancer in young girls is extremely rare and the majority of breast cancers occur in women over the age of 50. In your early teenage years, you shouldnt worry too much about your breasts however, there are some things you can do to reduce your risk over your lifetime.
- Maintain a healthy body weight. Its important to develop good patterns of healthy eating early in your life. Avoid junk foods and eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Regular exercise also reduces your risk. The World Health Organisation recommends that children and youth should have at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily. Its important to continue to exercise regularly throughout your life.
- Avoid alcohol and smoking as both of these contribute to cancer risk.
Its never too early to start adopting a healthy lifestyle. From the age of 20 you should also start checking your breasts regularly so that you know what they normally feel like. That way any changes can be picked up early and checked out by your GP.