Sunday, February 25, 2024

Do You Need Chemo For Skin Cancer

A Soothing Skincare Routine Before And After Chemo

Skin Cancer – What You Need To Know

Medically reviewed by Christina Chun, MPH on March 31, 2019 Written by Heather Cruickshank

https://www.healthline.com/health/oncology/skin-care

Overview

Chemotherapy is a common treatment for cancer. It has many potential benefits when it comes to effectively treating cancer, but it also tends to cause side effects.

Among other possible side effects, chemo may cause changes to the texture, color, or health of your skin.

You can take steps to manage the skin-related side effects of chemo, including steps that minimize discomfort.

Read on to learn more about how chemo could possibly affect your skin, as well the strategies you can use to feel and look your best during treatment.

How can you protect and soothe your skin during chemotherapy?

Chemotherapy might affect your skin in several ways.

For example, during chemotherapy, your skin can become dry, rough, itchy, and red. Its also possible you might experience peeling, cracks, sores, or rashes. Chemo may make your skin more sensitive to sunlight, increasing the risk of sunburn.

To help protect and relieve skin-related side effects from chemotherapy:

In some cases, your doctor or nurse might prescribe medications to treat skin symptoms. For example, they might prescribe medicated creams or ointments, oral corticosteroids or antibiotics, or other treatments.

How can you look and feel like yourself?

How does chemotherapy affect skin and what should I watch out for?

Some side effects are less common, but more severe.

Skin Color And Being Exposed To Sunlight Can Increase The Risk Of Basal Cell Carcinoma And Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Skin

Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer not having risk factors doesnt mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk.

Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin include the following:

  • Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight over long periods of time.
  • Having a fair complexion, which includes the following:
  • Fair skin that freckles and burns easily, does not tan, or tans poorly.
  • Blue, green, or other light-colored eyes.
  • Red or blond hair.

Although having a fair complexion is a risk factor for skin cancer, people of all skin colors can get skin cancer.

  • Having a history of sunburns.
  • Having a personal or family history of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, actinic keratosis, familial dysplastic nevussyndrome, or unusual moles.
  • Having certain changes in the genes or hereditary syndromes, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, that are linked to skin cancer.
  • Having skin inflammation that has lasted for long periods of time.
  • Having a weakened immune system.
  • Being exposed to arsenic.
  • Past treatment with radiation.
  • Older age is the main risk factor for most cancers. The chance of getting cancer increases as you get older.

    How Melanoma Is Treated

    Treatment recommendations for melanoma depend on many factors, including the thickness of the primary melanoma, whether the cancer has spread, the stage of the melanoma, the presence of specific genetic changes in melanoma cells, rate of melanoma growth, and the patients other medical conditions. Other factors used in making treatment decisions include possible side effects, as well as the patients preferences, overall health, goals for treatment, and quality of life. This section provides an overview of possible treatments and should not be considered treatment recommendations for individuals.

    Take time to learn about all of your treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment and what you can expect while receiving the treatment. These types of talks are called shared decision-making. Shared decision-making is when you and your doctors work together to choose treatments that fit the goals of your care. Shared decision-making is particularly important for melanoma because there are different treatment options. Learn more about making treatment decisions.

    The common types of treatments used for melanoma are described below. Later in this section, treatments are listed according to the stage of melanoma. Your care plan may also include treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care.

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    What Is The Outlook For Someone Who Has Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Skin

    When found early, this cancer is highly treatable. Left untreated, however, SCC can spread deep into the skin and travel to other parts of the body, making treatment difficult.

    While treatment can remove the cancer, its important to know that this cancer can return. You also have a greater risk of developing another skin cancer.

    Thats why self-care becomes so important after treatment for SCC of the skin. Youll find the self-care that dermatologists recommend at, Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: Self-care.

    ImagesGetty Images

    ReferencesAlam M, Armstrong A, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 78:560-78.

    Anadolu-Brasie R, Patel AR, et al., Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. In: Nouri K, et al. Skin Cancer. McGraw Hill Medical, China, 2008: 86-114.

    Marrazzo G, Zitelli JA, et al. Clinical outcomes in high-risk squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with Mohs micrographic surgery alone. J Am Acad Dermatol 2019 80:633-8.

    Que SKT, Zwald FO, et al. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: Management of advanced and high-stage tumors. J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 78:249-61.

    Ribero S, Stucci LS, et al. Drug therapy of advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: Is there any evidence? Curr Opin Oncol. 2017 29:129-35.

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves cemiplimab-rwlc for metastatic or locally advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. New release issued 9/28/2018. Last accessed 1/13/2020.

    Aural Polyps: Diagnosis And Treatment

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    If your doctor thinks the polyps result from an infection, they may prescribe antibiotics to get rid of them. If that doesnât work, they might cut out a small piece to look at under a microscope to see if theyâre cancerous. If they donât go away, youâll likely need surgery to get rid of them.

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    How Is Skin Cancer Diagnosed

    First, your dermatologist may ask you if you have noticed any changes in any existing moles, freckles or other skin spots or if youve noticed any new skin growths. Next, your dermatologist will examine all of your skin, including your scalp, ears, palms of your hands, soles of your feet, between your toes, around your genitals and between your buttocks.

    If a skin lesion is suspicious, a biopsy may be performed. In a biopsy, a sample of tissue is removed and sent to a laboratory to be examined under a microscope by a pathologist. Your dermatologist will tell you if your skin lesion is skin cancer, what type you have and discuss treatment options.

    What Is Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Of The Head And Neck

    Skin malignancies are the most common cancer in the United States, responsible for more than half of all new cancer cases. These can be broken down into melanoma and non-melanoma malignancies, which are squamous cell cancer and basal cell cancer. These skin malignancies are caused by ultraviolet radiation from exposure to the sun and tanning beds.

    Squamous cell cancer is the second most common form of skin cancer. It is more aggressive and may require extensive surgery depending on location and nerve involvement. Radiation, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used in advanced cases.

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    What Are The Signs Of Skin Cancer

    The most common warning sign of skin cancer is a change on your skin, typically a new growth, or a change in an existing growth or mole. The signs and symptoms of common and less common types of skin cancers are described below.

    Basal cell carcinoma

    Basal cell cancer is most commonly seen on sun-exposed areas of skin including your hands, face, arms, legs, ears, mouths, and even bald spots on the top of your head. Basal cell cancer is the most common type of skin cancer in the world. In most people, its slow growing, usually doesnt spread to other parts of the body and is not life-threatening.

    Signs and symptoms of basal cell carcinoma include:

    • A small, smooth, pearly or waxy bump on the face, ears, and neck.
    • A flat, pink/red- or brown-colored lesion on the trunk or arms and legs.
    • Areas on the skin that look like scars.
    • Sores that look crusty, have a depression in the middle or bleed often.

    Squamous cell carcinoma

    Squamous cell cancer is most commonly seen on sun-exposed areas of skin including your hands, face, arms, legs, ears, mouths, and even bald spots on the top of your head. This skin cancer can also form in areas such as mucus membranes and genitals.

    Signs and symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma include:

    • A firm pink or red nodule.
    • A rough, scaly lesion that might itch, bleed and become crusty.

    Melanoma

    Signs and symptoms of melanoma include:

    • A brown-pigmented patch or bump.
    • A mole that changes in color, size or that bleeds.

    Uterine Polyps: Diagnosis And Treatment

    My Skin Cancer Journey

    Along with an exam, monthly cycle details — how long, how frequent, how much blood, spotting between periods — can help your doctor decide if you have polyps. They may look at your uterus or remove a piece of it to test. You might not need treatment if you have no symptoms. But if polyps cause heavy bleeding, pregnancy problems, or come after menopause, theyâll want them gone. Drugs can ease symptoms, but only surgery can get rid of polyps.

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    How Common Is Skin Cancer

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common, with an estimated 3.6 million cases yearly. Squamous cell carcinoma is second, with about 1.8 million cases each year. There are no numbers for non-melanoma skin cancers because they don’t have to be reported to cancer registries.

    About 99,780 people will be diagnosed with invasive melanoma in 2022. Another 97,920 will be diagnosed with in-situ melanoma. That means it’s non-invasive or stage 0. Age-adjusted rates for new cases of melanoma rose an average of 1.2% each year from 2010 to 2019.

    When Is Radiation Therapy Used As Adjuvant Treatment

    Adjuvant therapy is an additional cancer treatment that is given after the primary treatment. Adjuvant therapy lowers the risk that the cancer comes back. Primary treatment for skin cancer is often surgery, with radiation therapy as an adjuvant therapy. Radiation kills cancer cells left after the skin cancer was removed.2 This is recommended for:

    • BCC, SCC, or melanoma that grew into a nerve.6,8,9
    • Non-melanoma skin cancer when cancer cells are found on the edges of the sample despite Mohs surgery.
    • Deep desmoplastic melanoma, a type of melanoma that is likely to recur.6
    • Melanoma that recurs.6

    Adjuvant radiation therapy is also recommend after lymph node removal.4,6 Without radiation therapy, about 40% of high-risk individuals have recurrent melanoma in the remaining lymph nodes.10 With adjuvant radiation therapy, about 10% of people have lymph node cancer recurrence.10

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    When Melanoma Can’t Be Cured

    If your cancer has spread and it is not possible to cure it by surgery, your doctor may still recommend treatment. In this case, treatment may help to relieve symptoms, might make you feel better and may allow you to live longer.

    Whether or not you choose to have anti-cancer treatment, symptoms can still be controlled. For example, if you have pain, there are effective treatments for this.

    General practitioners, specialists and palliative care teams in hospitals all play important roles in helping people with cancer.

    Screening And Early Detection

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    Screening means you’re looking for evidence of specific cancer even though there are no symptoms. It’s also important to see a healthcare provider when you have changes to your skin. Regular skin exams are essential if you’ve previously had skin cancer. Early detection allows you to start treatment before it spreads.

    The first step is a visual examination of the skin to look for abnormal moles, birthmarks, or other pigmented areas. Changes in size, shape, texture, or color may signify skin cancer. But the only way to confirm skin cancer is to perform a skin biopsy. Research suggests that 44.5% of skin biopsies come back positive for cancer.

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    How To Apply Chemotherapy Cream For Skin Cancer

    Your doctor, nurse or a pharmacist will give you the cream to put on at home. It is important to follow the advice they give you.You apply the cream on either once or twice a day. The area can usually be left uncovered. But your doctor or nurse may advise you to cover the area with a waterproof dressing after putting on the cream. You usually use the cream for 4 weeks.

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    Learn More About Stages Of Skin Cancer

    All stages of skin cancer can be serious. Delaying treatment can cause unwanted complications, and in some cases, death. Fortunately, treatments with high success rates are now available and can help you restore your confidence, balance, and health. Contact Advanced Skin Canser and Dermatology Center in Wolcott, CT to schedule your consultation today. Well be happy to answer all your questions and recommend the best treatment options!

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    How Is Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Skin Treated When It Spreads

    When this cancer spreads beyond the skin, it travels to the lymph nodes or other organs. Once it spreads, a patient has advanced cancer.

    If you’ve been diagnosed with advanced SCC, you will be cared for by a team of medical professionals. This team will include oncologists . Your treatment plan may include one or more of the following:

    Surgery: When surgery can remove the cancer and youre healthy enough to have surgery, this is often the preferred treatment. After surgery, another treatment, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy, is often given. Adding another treatment helps to kill cancer cells.

    Radiation therapy: Radiation can target cancer cells in the skin, lymph nodes, or other areas of the body. When a patient has advanced SCC, radiation therapy is often used along with another treatment.

    Immunotherapy: This type of treatment helps strengthen your immune system so that it can fight the cancer. Drugs called immunotherapy medications are given for this purpose.

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved one immunotherapy medication for the treatment of advanced SCC of the skin. Its called cemiplimab-rwlc.

    In the clinical trials that led the FDA to approve cemiplimab-rwlc, about half the patients who had advanced SCC of the skin had their tumors shrink. In many patients who had tumor shrinkage, the shrinking lasted 6 months or longer. A few patients had their tumors disappear completely.

    Immunotherapy

    Pembrolizumab is also given by IV infusion.

    Topical Treatments For Skin Cancer

    Do You Need Chemotherapy?

    Some skin spots and cancers can be treated with creams or gels that you apply to the skin. These are called topical treatments. They may contain immunotherapy or chemotherapy drugs, and are prescribed by a doctor.

    You should use these treatments only on the specific spots or areas that your doctor has asked you to treat. Dont use leftover cream to treat new spots that have not been assessed by your doctor.

    Learn more about:

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    Complementary And Alternative Treatments

    It’s common for people with cancer to seek out complementary or alternative treatments. When used alongside your conventional cancer treatment, some of these therapies can make you feel better and improve your quality of life. Others may not be so helpful and in some cases may be harmful.

    It is important to tell all your healthcare professionals about any complementary medicines you are taking. Never stop taking your conventional treatment without consulting your doctor first.

    All treatments can have side effects. These days, new treatments are available that can help to make many side effects much less severe than they were in the past.

    How Do Dermatologists Diagnose Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Skin

    Because this cancer begins on the skin, its possible to find it early when its highly treatable.

    When you see a board-certified dermatologist, your dermatologist will examine your skin carefully.

    If your dermatologist finds a spot on your skin that could be any type of skin cancer, your dermatologist will first numb the area and then remove all of it. This can be done during an office visit and is called a skin biopsy. This is a simple procedure, which a dermatologist can quickly, safely, and easily perform.

    Having a skin biopsy is the only way to know for sure whether you have skin cancer.

    What your dermatologist removes will be examined under a high-powered microscope. Your dermatologist or a doctor who has in-depth experience diagnosing skin growths, such as a dermatopathologist, is best qualified to examine the removed tissue under a microscope.

    After examining the removed tissue, the doctor writes a biopsy report. Also called a pathology report, this report explains what was seen under the microscope, including whether any skin cancer cells were seen.

    If you have squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, the report will contain the following information when possible:

    • Whether the cancer has any features that make it aggressive

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    Staging For Basal Cell Carcinoma And Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of The Skin Depends On Where The Cancer Formed

    Staging for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is different from staging for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma found on other areas of the head or neck. There is no staging system for basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma that is not found on the head or neck.

    Surgery to remove the primary tumor and abnormal lymph nodes is done so that tissue samples can be studied under a microscope. This is called pathologic staging and the findings are used for staging as described below. If staging is done before surgery to remove the tumor, it is called clinical staging. The clinical stage may be different from the pathologic stage.

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