Sunday, March 3, 2024

How Is Cancer Caused In Cells

What About Alternative Treatments

What Causes Cancer? Cancer Mutations and Random DNA Copying Errors

There are many alternative therapies that are promoted as cancer cures. They are unproven because they have not been scientifically tested,or were tested and found to be ineffective. If alternative therapies are used instead of evidence-based treatment, the patient may suffer, either from lack of helpful treatment or because the alternative treatment is actually harmful.

If you are thinking about using a treatment that is not an evidence-based medical treatment, make sure you carefully consider and investigate the claims being made. Look into the evidence for those claims, the credentials of the people or organisation promoting the treatment, the costs and the potential risks of delaying conventional treatments.

The American Cancer Society recommends the following checklist to identify treatments that might be questionable:

  • Is the treatment based on an unproven theory?
  • Does the treatment promise a cure for all cancers?
  • Are you told not to use conventional medical treatment?
  • Is the treatment or drug a secret that only certain providers can give?
  • Does the treatment require you to travel to another country?
  • Do the promoters attack the medical/scientific establishment?

If the answer to any of these questions is ‘yes’, you should carefully consider whether the proposed treatment is of any value.

What Cancers Are Caused By Hpv Infection

Long-lasting infections with high-risk HPVs can cause cancer in parts of the body where HPV infects cells, such as in the cervix, oropharynx , , , , and vulva.

HPV infects the squamous cells that line the inner surfaces of these organs. For this reason, most HPV-related cancers are a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. Some cervical cancers come from HPV infection of gland cells in the cervix and are called adenocarcinomas.

HPV-related cancers include:

In the United States, high-risk HPVs cause 3% of all cancers in women and 2% of all cancers in men. Each year, there are about 45,000 new cases of cancer in parts of the body where HPV is often found, and HPV is estimated to cause about 36,000 of these, according to the Centers for Disease Control .

Worldwide, the burden of HPV-related cancers is much greater. High-risk HPVs cause about 5% of all cancers worldwide, with an estimated 570,000 women and 60,000 men getting an HPV-related cancer each year. Cervical cancer is among the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in low- and middle-income countries, where screening tests and treatment of early cervical cell changes are not readily available.

How Can I Manage Side Effects Of Cancer Treatment

If youre undergoing cancer treatment, talking with your healthcare provider can help you manage your side effects. Many people find that maintaining a healthy diet helps them feel better and stay stronger. You may also benefit from incorporating exercise into your daily routine. Be sure to clear any dietary changes and activities with your healthcare provider first.

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What Are The Findings From Studies Of The Human Body

Researchers have carried out several kinds of studies to investigate possible effects of cell phone use on the human body. In 2011, two small studies were published that examined brain glucose metabolism in people after they had used cell phones. The results were inconsistent. One study showed increased glucose metabolism in the region of the brain close to the antenna compared with tissues on the opposite side of the brain the other study found reduced glucose metabolism on the side of the brain where the phone was used.

The authors of these studies noted that the results were preliminary and that possible health outcomes from changes in glucose metabolism in humans were unknown. Such inconsistent findings are not uncommon in experimental studies of the physiological effects of radiofrequencyelectromagnetic radiation in people . Some factors that can contribute to inconsistencies across such studies include assumptions used to estimate doses, failure to consider temperature effects, and investigators not being blinded to exposure status.

Another study investigated blood flow in the brain of people exposed to radiofrequency radiation from cell phones and found no evidence of an effect on blood flow in the brain .

Cancer Treatment Aims To Remove Tumors Or Limit Their Growth

What is Cancer?

There are many different types of cancer treatment. All of them aim to remove the malignant tumor, or at least limit how much the cancer can grow and spread. Some cancers can be removed by surgery. Medication or various types of radiotherapy are sometimes used to shrink tumors before surgery. These treatments might be used after surgery too, to destroy any cancer cells that are left and prevent the cancer from growing back .

Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are still options even if the tumor can’t be removed by surgery. The exact treatment will depend on various things, like the type of tumor and the stage of the disease. Medications known as cytostatic drugs are typically used in chemotherapy. These drugs can kill cancer cells or make sure that they don’t continue to grow. Other medications prevent the development of new blood vessels that feed the tumor. That can slow the growth of the tumor. Some drugs interfere with the cancer growth process by reducing the effect of hormones and other chemical messengers on the cells. Nowadays there are also medications that can boost the immune system’s ability to fight off certain types of cancer cells. Researchers are always looking for new ways to limit the growth and spread of cancer cells.

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What Have Expert Organizations Said About The Cancer Risk From Cell Phone Use

In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer , a component of the World Health Organization, appointed an expert working group to review all available evidence on the use of cell phones. The working group classified cell phone use as possibly carcinogenic to humans, based on limited evidence from human studies, limited evidence from studies of radiofrequency radiation and cancer in rodents, and inconsistent evidence from mechanistic studies .

The working group indicated that, although the human studies were susceptible to bias, the findings could not be dismissed as reflecting bias alone, and that a causal interpretation could not be excluded. The working group noted that any interpretation of the evidence should also consider that the observed associations could reflect chance, bias, or confounding variables rather than an underlying causal effect. In addition, the working group stated that the investigation of brain cancer risk associated with cell phone use poses complex research challenges.

The American Cancer Societys cell phones page states It is not clear at this time that RF waves from cell phones cause dangerous health effects in people, but studies now being done should give a clearer picture of the possible health effects in the future.

  • Cardis E, Richardson L, Deltour I, et al. The INTERPHONE study: Design, epidemiological methods, and description of the study population. European Journal of Epidemiology 2007 22:647664.

  • Is Cancer Genetic

    Genetic factors can contribute to the development of cancer.

    A persons genetic code tells their cells when to divide and expire. Changes in the genes can lead to faulty instructions, and cancer can result.

    Genes also influence the cells production of proteins, and proteins carry many of the instructions for cellular growth and division.

    Some genes change proteins that would usually repair damaged cells. This can lead to cancer. If a parent has these genes, they may pass on the altered instructions to their offspring.

    Some genetic changes occur after birth, and factors such as smoking and sun exposure can increase the risk.

    Other changes that can result in cancer take place in the chemical signals that determine how the body deploys, or expresses specific genes.

    Finally, a person can inherit a predisposition for a type of cancer. A doctor may refer to this as having a hereditary cancer syndrome. Inherited genetic mutations significantly contribute to the development of

    The side effects of chemotherapy include hair loss. However, advances in treatment are improving the outlook for people with cancer.

    Innovative research has fueled the development of new medications and treatment technologies.

    Doctors usually prescribe treatments based on the type of cancer, its stage at diagnosis, and the persons overall health.

    Below are examples of approaches to cancer treatment:

    Doctors will often employ more than one type of treatment to maximize effectiveness.

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    How Do They Start

    Cancer cells appear through a series of genetic and epigenetic changes. Some of these changes may be inherited or, more often, caused by carcinogens in the environment.

    In general, solid tumors contain multiple mutations . Interestingly, the metastatic process that is the main culprit for the high mortality of advanced cancers is thought to be caused mostly by epigenetic changes as no specific genetic alterations have been found in metastases.

    Does Cancer Always Cause Pain

    What is cancer? What causes cancer and how is it treated?

    Some cancers cause pain, others do not. Some people experience pain as the result of tumour growth or advanced cancer, or as a side effect of treatment.

    Pain relief is always made available to cancer patients suffering pain. Your doctor can advise you about what to expect and how the pain can be managed.

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    Hpv Vaccination: Preventing Hpv Infection

    The HPV vaccine Gardasil 9® protects against infection from nine HPV types: the two low-risk HPV types that cause most genital warts, plus the seven high-risk HPV types that cause most HPV-related cancers.

    HPV vaccination is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention s Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices to prevent new HPV infections and HPV-associated cancers and other diseases.

    HPV vaccination provides strong protection against new HPV infections. Vaccination is prevention and does not cure an infection once you have it. The HPV vaccine is not used to treat HPV infections or diseases caused by HPV. HPV vaccination offers the most protection when given at ages 9-12. HPV vaccination is estimated to prevent up to 90% of HPV-related cancers.

    Evasion Of The Immune System

    When normal cells become damaged, the immune system identifies and removes them.

    Cancer cells are able to evade the immune system long enough to grow into a tumor by either escaping detection or by secreting chemicals that inactivate immune cells that come to the scene. Some of the newer immunotherapy medications address this aspect of cancer cells.

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    Which Cancers Cause The Most Deaths

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in Australia. The most common causes of cancer deaths are not necessarily the most frequently occurring cancers. While lung cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer overall, it is the leading cause of cancer death in Australians.

    The most common causes of cancer-related death in men and women are listed in order below:

    Finding Out About Cancer

    The Difference Between Normal and Cancer Cells

    It can take a while for a doctor to figure out a kid has cancer. That’s because the symptoms cancer can cause weight loss, fevers, swollen glands, or feeling overly tired or sick for a while usually are not caused by cancer. When a kid has these problems, it’s often caused by something less serious, like an infection. With medical testing, the doctor can figure out what’s causing the trouble.

    If the doctor suspects cancer, he or she can do tests to figure out if that’s the problem. A doctor might order X-rays and blood tests and recommend the person go to see an oncologist . An oncologist is a doctor who takes care of and treats cancer patients. The oncologist will likely run other tests to find out if someone really has cancer. If so, tests can determine what kind of cancer it is and if it has spread to other parts of the body. Based on the results, the doctor will decide the best way to treat it.

    One test that an oncologist may perform is a biopsy . During a biopsy, a piece of tissue is removed from a tumor or a place in the body where cancer is suspected, like the bone marrow. Don’t worry someone getting this test will get special medicine to keep him or her comfortable during the biopsy. The sample that’s collected will be examined under a microscope for cancer cells.

    The sooner cancer is found and treatment begins, the better someone’s chances are for a full recovery and cure.

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    What Are The 5 Types Of Cancer

    There are five main types of cancer. These include:

    • Carcinoma. This type of cancer affects organs and glands, such as the lungs, breasts, pancreas and skin. Carcinoma is the most common type of cancer.
    • Sarcoma. This cancer affects soft or connective tissues, such as muscle, fat, bone, cartilage or blood vessels.
    • Melanoma. Sometimes cancer can develop in the cells that pigment your skin. These cancers are called melanoma.
    • Lymphoma. This cancer affects your lymphocytes or white blood cells.
    • Leukemia. This type of cancer affects blood.

    What Has Research Shown About The Link Between Cell Phone Use And Cancer Risk

    Researchers have carried out several types of population studies to investigate the possibility of a relationship between cell phone use and the risk of tumors, both malignant and nonmalignant . Epidemiologic studies are research studies in which investigators observe groups of individuals and collect information about them but do not try to change anything about the groups.

    Two main types of epidemiologic studiescohort studies and case-control studieshave been used to examine associations between cell phone use and cancer risk. In a casecontrol study, cell phone use is compared between people who have tumors and people who dont. In a cohort study, a large group of people who do not have cancer at the beginning of the study is followed over time and tumor development in people who did and didnt use cell phones is compared. Cohort studies are limited by the fact that they may only be able to look at cell phone subscribers, who are not necessarily the cell phone users.

    The tumors that have been investigated in epidemiologic studies include malignant brain tumors, such as gliomas, as well as nonmalignant tumors, such as acoustic neuroma , meningiomas , parotid gland tumors , skin cancer, and thyroid gland tumors.

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    What Makes A Cancer Aggressive

    The interior of a cancer tumour is a hostile environment with oxygen deficiency, low pH levels and lack of nutrients. The cells that survive in this environment are called stressed cells and are considered to be more aggressive.

    How do cancer cells multiply?

    Risk Factors for Cancer Cells are the building blocks of your body. Normally cells grow, divide and die. Cancer begins when a normal cell mutates, or changes, and is not able to repair itself. The damaged cell then keeps multiplying and creates a tumor.

    What is the most successful cancer treatment?

    Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatments for advanced cancer.

    How are genes involved in the development of cancer?

    Genes carry the instructions to make proteins, which do much of the work in our cells. Certain gene changes can cause cells to evade normal growth controls and become cancer.

    How Do Cancer Cells Differ From Precancerous Cells

    Cancer: from a healthy cell to a cancer cell

    Precancerous cells may look abnormal and similar to cancer cells but are distinguished from cancer cells by their behavior. Unlike cancer cells, precancerous cells do not have the ability to spread to other regions of the body.

    An often-confusing condition is that of carcinoma-in-situ It consists of cells with the abnormal changes found in cancer cells. But since they have not spread beyond their original location , they are not technically cancer. Since CIS can turn into cancer, it is usually treated as early cancer.

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    Million Women Cohort Study

    How the study was done: This prospective cohort study conducted in the United Kingdom used data obtained from questionnaires that were completed by study participants.

    What the study showed: Self-reported cell phone use was not associated with an increased risk of glioma, meningioma, or non-central nervous system tumors. Although the original published findings reported an association with an increased risk of acoustic neuroma , it was not observed with additional years of follow-up of the cohort .

    Whats The Difference Between Cancer Cells And Normal Cells

    In a nutshell, normal cells obey instructions. Cancer cells dont.

    Normal cells grow and divide only as needed to replace damaged or aging cells. Mature cells have specialized functions. Once they fulfill their purpose, they die off, completing their life cycle.

    Cancer cells have mutated genes and are less specialized than normal cells. Cancer cells dont follow the regular routine. Needed or not, they grow and divide and dont die off when they should. Its this out-of-control growth that leads to cancer.

    Cancer cells pile up to form tumors and spread into surrounding tissue. These cells can also break away and travel to other parts of the body.

    To complicate matters, cancer cells can affect the behavior of normal cells. They can prompt healthy cells around them to grow new blood vessels in order to keep cancerous tumors supplied with nutrients.

    Cancer cells can often evade the immune system by inhibiting immune cells from differentiating them from other cells.

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    How Does Cancer Spread

    Cancer can spread from where it started to other parts of the body.

    When cancer cells break away from a tumor, they can travel to other areas of the body through either the bloodstream or the lymph system. Cancer cells that travel through the bloodstream may to reach distant organs. If they travel through the lymph system, the cancer cells may end up in lymph nodes. Either way, most of the escaped cancer cells die or are killed before they can start growing somewhere else. But one or two might settle in a new area, begin to grow, and form new tumors. This spread of cancer to a new part of the body is called metastasis.

    Cells that make up a metastasis are the same type of cells as in the primary cancer. They are not a new type of cancer. For instance, breast cancer cells that spread to the lungs are still breast cancer and NOT lung cancer. And colon cancer cells that spread to the liver are still colon cancer.

    In order for cancer cells to spread to new parts of the body, they have to go through several changes. They first have to become able to break away from the original tumor and then attach to the outside wall of a lymph vessel or blood vessel. Then they must move through the vessel wall to flow with the blood or lymph to a new organ or lymph node.

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