Lung Cancer In The Us
Lungcancer is the most common type of cancer. According to the CDC, in 2006 an estimated 106,374 men and 90,080 women were diagnosed in the U.S. with lung cancer. Lung cancer accounted for more deaths than colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers combined.
Smoking is a major risk factor for developing lung cancer and other types of cancer. Researchers are also interested in the effect diet may play in cancer risk and development. A study published in September in European Journal of Cancer reported an association between eating a high amount of fruits and vegetables and a decreased risk of lung cancer. A 2009 study published in the journal Lung Cancer found drinking large amounts of green tea was associated with a lowered risk for lung cancer, but no such association was found for black tea.
The researchers of the latest study say their findings warrant additional research to investigate how black tea, dairy, and exercise affect lung cancer risk differently among female smokers and nonsmokers.
This study was presented at a medical conference. The findings should be considered preliminary as they have not yet undergone the “peer review” process, in which outside experts scrutinize the data prior to publication in a medical journal.
Should I Avoid Alcohol During Cancer Treatment
For people getting treated for cancer, the cancer type and stage , as well as the type of treatment matter when deciding whether it’s OK to drink alcohol during treatment. Many of the drugs used to treat cancer are broken down by the liver, and alcohol, by causing liver inflammation, could slow drug breakdown, increasing side effects. Its a good idea to avoid or limit alcohol during treatment to prevent interactions with the drugs used to treat cancer.
Alcohol, even in the small amounts used in mouthwashes, can irritate mouth sores and even make them worse. If you have mouth sores, you may be advised to avoid or limit alcohol. It may also be best to avoid or limit alcohol if you are starting treatment that will put you at risk for mouth sores, such as head and neck radiation or many types of chemotherapy.
Is There Evidence That Prehabilitationworks
In reviewing several studies on prehabilitation, Fenemore and Roberts found that individuals in the early stages of their treatment who underwent prehabilitation had fewer treatment-related complications and higher five-year survival rates. They also were better prepared for future treatment. has been offered for many years, and only more recently, we are seeing the benefits to patients chemotherapy and radiotherapy, Fenemore told MyLungCancerTeam.
Fenemore and Roberts wrote that prehabilitation programs for cancer recovery, such as Prehab4Cancer in England, have been promising for those undergoing cancer treatment including chemotherapy, initial diagnosis, and surgery. Such programs can help address nonphysical effects of cancer treatment including low mood, anxiety, and fatigue. Having an improved mood and more positive outlook can help people continue or resume daily living and self-care, depending on where they are in their treatment program.
For advanced-stage cancer, evidence is limited as to the effectiveness of prehabilitation, according to the series. Case studies, however, show how prehabilitation can potentially improve patient access to and suitability for treatments.
People living with lung cancer should seek guidance from their health care team regarding the best prehabilitation services for their particular diagnosis.
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Symptom Burden Fatigue And Quality Of Life Pre/post Intervention
QOL was assessed using the validated Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Lung , ESAS, and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue questionnaires . The FACT-L assesses physical , social/family , emotional , and functional well-being as well as a lung cancer subscale . These were combined according to FACT-L scoring guidelines to yield an overall QOL score . The ESAS was used to measure symptom burden, and the FACIT-F to measure fatigue as two additional aspects of QOL. FACIT-F scores range from 0 to 52 and FACT-L total scores range from 0 to 136, with higher scores indicating better QOL.
Exercise For Advanced Lung Cancer
The goal of exercise for advanced lung cancer, or for those with earlier disease who canât have surgery, is to ease symptoms, keep fitness level and quality of life, and reduce treatment side effects.
Moderate-intensity aerobics and resistance training have been shown to be safe and can lessen anxiety and improve physical abilities. One small study involving people with advanced NSCLC and extensive SCLC reported better oxygen intake and mental health. A similar plan of strength and endurance training improved muscle strength and shortness of breath in advanced-stage patients who were getting chemotherapy.
This, in turn, may improve survival. Research shows that people with better lung capacity in advanced NSCLC have slightly lower risk of dying.
Slow walking is a safe option for many. âI always recommend walking with somebody, maybe holding their hand,â says Michaels. âIt gives you more confidence.â It also helps with balance.
Even people with cancer that has spread to the bones or who are getting palliative care can benefit from exercise, as long as itâs done in partnership with a doctor or specialist.
Exercise has been shown to improve the quality of life for people who have lung cancer, in all stages. In fact, some people who have lung cancer say the quality of their lives is just as important as how long they live.
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Icipant Recruitment And Eligibility
All participants were recruited in-person at the lung cancer clinic at the Holy Cross Centre . Inclusion criteria were: 1) 18+ years old 2) stage III-IV NSCLC 3) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 02 4) Edmonton Symptom Assessment System score3/10 on at least one item 5) hemoglobin 80g/L 6) life expectancy > 6months and 7) cleared for exercise by an oncologist. Exclusion criteria were: 1) active infections 2) enteral tube feeding or parenteral nutrition 3) mechanical or functional bowel obstruction 4) cognitive impairment and 5) non-English speaking. Eligible participants were briefed by their oncologist before receiving additional study information from the study team upon providing permission. Those who were interested attended the pre-intervention assessment to complete informed consent and required measures.
How Nutrition Plays A Role
Food is essential to good health. Whenever possible, its important to choose nourishing foods to help energize your body and keep you strong. This can help improve treatment outcomes and promote overall well-being.
Following a well-balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables and other healthy foods may help reduce your risk of developing a number of chronic diseases, including cancer.
Whenever possible, try to choose foods that provide protein, healthy fats, vitamins, and minerals, and choose balanced meals and snacks that are rich in protein. Protein is very important for people with cancer as muscle loss is common, especially in people with advanced cancers.
However, whats most important is making sure that you stay nourished and eat enough calories to keep yourself energized and prevent weight loss. If youre struggling to consume enough calories, consult your medical team for advice.
of lung cancer deaths. But theres also evidence that diet plays some role in lung cancer risk, especially in smokers.
In a published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, people who ate a lot of whole grains and fruits were less likely to develop lung cancer than those whose diets were low in these healthy foods.
may prevent cancer.
Lung cancer treatments can affect:
For nausea and vomiting:
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Increasing Physical Activity And Exercise In Lung Cancer: Reviewing Safety Benefits And Application
- Brett C. BadeAffiliationsDepartment of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina
- D. David ThomasAffiliationsDepartment of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina
- JoAnn B. ScottAffiliationsDepartment of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina
- Gerard A. SilvestriCorrespondenceAddress for correspondence: Gerard A. Silvestri, MD, MS, 96 Jonathan Lucas St., Suite 812 CSB, MSC 630, Charleston, South Carolina 29425-6300 ContactAffiliationsDepartment of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina
What You Can Do About Appetite Loss
Remember that good nutrition is important, even when you dont feel like eating. Try to think of food as part of your treatment, since it can help you keep up your strength and energy, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce your risk of infection.
Among their suggestions:
Caregivers can help with nutrition by offering snacks and starchy foods , keeping cool drinks handy, and making shakes and smoothies when the person theyre caring for doesnt want to eat. Encourage eating without nagging or arguing. And the ACS stresses that its important for caregivers not to blame themselves if their loved one refuses to or cant eat.
Taofeek Owonikoko, MD, chief of the division of hematology/oncology at UPMC Hillman Cancer Center in Pittsburgh, says he tells his patients to eat as much of a balanced diet as they can.
He adds that marijuana might also help, because it may stimulate appetite but remains cautious. I cannot be an advocate for it, Dr. Owonikoko says, but my patients who have used marijuana have reported improvement in appetite and less nausea. People report good outcomes with the use of medicinal marijuana products.
Owonikoko also encourages exercise to help stimulate appetite, but You shouldnt overdo it, he says. You should do as much as you feel you can tolerate.
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Exercise And Lung Cancer Survival
For both sexes, exercise appears to reduce the risk of death from lung cancer, although the benefits seem somewhat greater in women. It’s challenging to study the effect of exercise on lung cancer in humans. It wouldn’t be ethical to have one group of survivors exercise and another intentionally be sedentary. While animal studies can’t necessarily translate to humans, a 2019 meta-analysis looking at a number of studies on exercise and tumor growth in rodents found that exercise was significantly associated with slower tumor growth.
That said, studies published in 2016 have shown improved survival in humans as well, especially older women who are physically active when they have lung cancer.
We do know that exercise appears to help people better tolerate treatments, and being able to continue treatments can translate into improved survival.
Ideas For Staying Active
Keep things easy with low-intensity activities, including:
Easy walking: Choose walking over driving when possible, or make it a habit to go for a short walk after dinner each night.
Light stretching: Start and end the day with a few simple stretches to prevent muscle tightness and joint stiffness.
Gentle yoga: Check out gentle yoga classes at studios in your community or online. Make sure to pick a class thats geared toward gentle, restorative yoga postures. An added benefit to yoga is that youll learn deep breathing exercises to improve your lung capacity.
Tai Chi: This ancient Chinese form of exercise is referred to as moving meditation and helps with focus, concentration, balance and mindfulness.
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What Are The Benefits Of Exercise For People With Cancer
There are many benefits to exercise during cancer treatment. Some of these include:
Improve how treatment works and reduce treatment side effects. In general, exercise can improve the body’s response to treatment, no matter the stage or type of cancer. Regular exercise has been shown to:
Reduce treatment-related fatigue
Maintain heart and lung fitness, physical ability, and strength
May reduce feelings of anxiety and depression, and improve quality of life
After surgery for lung cancer, decrease the amount of recovery time needed in the hospital
In some studies, exercise has also been associated with better survival rates for certain cancers, including breast cancer and colorectal cancer.
Improve overall health status. In general, exercise can improve a patient’s overall health. Some of the health benefits of exercise include:
Improve balance to reduce your risk of falls
Reduce the risk of osteoporosis
Reduce risks of co-existing conditions and other cancers. Co-existing conditions are other health concerns that you have in addition to cancer. Regular exercise may:
Reduce the risk of developing co-existing conditions, like heart disease and diabetes
Help manage co-existing conditions you already have
What Are The Risks Of Loss Of Appetite
Poor nutrition can lead to unwanted weight loss, loss of muscle mass, and malnutrition. And failing to maintain adequate nutrition and hydration can do more than make you feel worse. It can actually interfere with your treatment and even affect life expectancy.
Its less likely that any treatment will help you if you cant keep nutrition up and get up and move about, says David Graham, MD, an oncologist at the Levine Cancer Institute in Charlotte, North Carolina. I tell people, Youre on the see-food diet: If you see food, eat it!
Sometimes conventional wisdom about eating and nutrition has to be discarded entirely, Dr. Graham says. One of the biggest problems I have to get through with patients, he says, is that so many of us are raised on three meals a day. With cancer, that often becomes frustrating if you cant eat a big meal.
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Are There Special Food Safety Precautions For People Getting Cancer Treatment
Infection is a special concern for cancer survivors, especially when the immune system is weak. Certain cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, can weaken the immune system. When their immune systems are weak, survivors should be careful to avoid eating foods that may contain unsafe levels of germs. Food should be handled safely for example:
- Wash your hands before and after preparing food, and before eating.
- Wash vegetables and fruits well.
- Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold .
- Use special care when handling raw meats, fish, poultry, and eggs. Keep them away from other foods.
- Thoroughly clean all utensils, countertops, cutting boards, and sponges that have touched raw meat.
- Meat, poultry, and seafood should be thoroughly cooked. Use a food thermometer to check the internal temperatures of meats before serving.
- Avoid raw honey, milk, and fruit juice, and choose pasteurized versions instead.
- Store foods in a refrigerator or freezer right after buying them to limit the growth of germs.
- When eating out, avoid salad bars sushi and raw or undercooked meat, fish , poultry, and eggsthese foods are more likely to contain harmful bacteria.
- If you use well water in your home and are concerned about its safety , ask your public health department to check it for bacteria.
Does Sugar Feed Cancer
Sugar intake has not been shown to increase the risk of getting cancer or having it get worse . Still, sugars and sugar-sweetened drinks add large amounts of calories to the diet and can cause weight gain, which we know can affect cancer outcomes.
There are many kinds of sugars, including honey, raw sugar, brown sugar, corn syrup, and molasses. Many drinks, such as soft drinks and fruit-flavored beverages contain added sugar. Most foods and drinks that are high in added sugar do not offer many nutrients and may replace more nutritious food choices. For this reason, limiting the intake of foods and drinks with added sugar is recommended.
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Diet And Exercise Are Key Factors In Determining Lung Cancer Risk
Lisa M Cockrell
“The way we live our lives does influence our risk of getting cancer,” said Tim Byers, MD, professor of preventative medicine at the University of Colorado, in Aurora, who was not involved in the study. “Choices we make in tobacco use, sun exposure, food, and physical activity all seem to add up to explain half or more of cancer risk in the population.”
Recently, a model to predict lung cancer development in never, former, and current smokers was developed. Although this Spitz model showed clear associations with lung cancer development and smoking history, family history of respiratory disease, and exposure to second-hand smoke or dust, the model did not take into account the relative contributions of several other factors. In the current study, presented by Michele Forman, PhD, from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, in Houston, fruit and vegetable intake, as well as physical activity, were examined as potential risk factors. According to Dr. Forman, this study was the first risk-prediction model for lung cancer that took into account, in addition to smoking, both diet and physical activity.
Interestingly, the participants who ate fewer than 3 salads per week had more than twice the risk of developing lung cancer than those who consumed more than 4 salads per week. Importantly, this was shown to be true regardless of smoking status, although the effect was more dramatic in former and current smokers.