Treating Stage I Colon Cancer
Stage I colon cancers have grown deeper into the layers of the colon wall, but they have not spread outside the colon wall itself or into the nearby lymph nodes.
Stage I includes cancers that were part of a polyp. If the polyp is removed completely during colonoscopy, with no cancer cells at the edges of the removed piece, no other treatment may be needed.
If the cancer in the polyp is high grade , or there are cancer cells at the edges of the polyp, more surgery might be recommended. You might also be advised to have more surgery if the polyp couldnt be removed completely or if it had to be removed in many pieces, making it hard to see if cancer cells were at the edges.
For cancers not in a polyp, partial colectomy surgery to remove the section of colon that has cancer and nearby lymph nodes is the standard treatment. You typically won’t need any more treatment.
Chemotherapy For Bowel Cancer
Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs to treat bowel cancer.
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These drugs disrupt the way cancer cells grow and divide, but they also affect normal cells.
Chemotherapy may be given:
- after surgery, to reduce the risk of cancer coming back
- before surgery, to shrink the cancer and reduce the risk of it coming back
- as the main treatment, if the cancer has spread to parts of the body such as the liver or lungs
- with radiotherapy to treat rectal cancer. This is called chemoradiation.
- fluorouracil often given with folinic acid
Often, two or more chemotherapy drugs are given in combination. The three most commonly used combinations are:
Treatment Of Colon Cancer By Stage
Treatment for colon cancer is based largely on the stage of the cancer, but other factors can also be important.
People with colon cancers that have not spread to distant sites usually have surgery as the main or first treatment. Chemotherapy may also be used after surgery . Most adjuvant treatment is given for about 6 months.
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Treating Stage Ii Colon Cancer
Many stage II colon cancers have grown through the wall of the colon, and maybe into nearby tissue, but they have not spread to the lymph nodes.
Surgery to remove the section of the colon containing the cancer along with nearby lymph nodes may be the only treatment needed. But your doctor may recommend adjuvant chemotherapy if your cancer has a higher risk of coming back because of certain factors, such as:
- The cancer looks very abnormal when viewed closely in the lab.
- The cancer has grown into nearby blood or lymph vessels.
- The surgeon did not remove at least 12 lymph nodes.
- Cancer was found in or near the margin of the removed tissue, meaning that some cancer may have been left behind.
- The cancer had blocked the colon.
- The cancer caused a perforation in the wall of the colon.
The doctor might also test your tumor for specific gene changes, called MSI or MMR, to help decide if adjuvant chemotherapy would be helpful.
Not all doctors agree on when chemo should be used for stage II colon cancers. Its important for you to discuss the risks and benefits of chemo with your doctor, including how much it might reduce your risk of recurrence and what the likely side effects will be.
If chemo is used, the main options include 5-FU and leucovorin, oxaliplatin, or capecitabine, but other combinations may also be used.
Side Effects Of Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy drugs may cause unpleasant side effects, but these can usually be well controlled with medicines and will usually go away once treatment has finished. Not all drugs cause the same side effects and some people may have very few.
You can talk to your doctor or nurse about what to expect from the treatment thats planned for you. The main side effects are described here as well as some ways to reduce or control them.
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If Treatment Does Not Work
Recovery from cancer is not always possible. If the cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or terminal.
This diagnosis is stressful, and for some people, advanced cancer is difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team has special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and their families and is there to help. Making sure a person is physically comfortable, free from pain, and emotionally supported is extremely important.
People who have advanced cancer and who are expected to live less than 6 months may want to consider hospice care. Hospice care is designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. You and your family are encouraged to talk with the health care team about hospice care options, which include hospice care at home, a special hospice center, or other health care locations. Nursing care and special equipment can make staying at home a workable option for many families. Learn more about advanced cancer care planning.
After the death of a loved one, many people need support to help them cope with the loss. Learn more about grief and loss.
What Is Oral Chemotherapy Things To Know Before Starting Treatment
Oral chemotherapy is a type of cancer treating drug that is taken in the form of a daily pill or liquid, allowing for less frequent medical appointments.
Over the past 20 years, more than 50 new oral anticancer medications have become available to treat many different cancers, including lung, leukemia, colorectal, kidney, and prostate.
Cancer treatment is always evolving, with new techniques regularly being approved. Oral chemotherapy is a relatively recent development that makes treatment more convenient for eligible patients by allowing them to take medication at home.
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What Is The Outlook Of Stage 4 Colon Cancer
The last-stage colon cancer has a 5-year survival rate of about 13 %. This means that only about 13 % of all patients diagnosed with this type and stage of cancer will live more than 5 years after being diagnosed.
However, these are just numbers and every person is unique. No one can tell you for sure how long you will live. The outlook of colon cancer depends on many factors such as age, overall health, where the colon cancer has spread, what treatments you got, etc.
With the new advances in treatment and technology, the outlook of colon cancer is slowly improving.
Stage Ii Colon Cancer: To Treat Or Not To Treat
A diagnosis of colon cancer brings about many emotions because of the uncertainty it causes uncertainty about side effects, the ability care for ourselves, and most importantly, our life expectancy. A diagnosis of stage II colon cancer has an added concern – the question of whether chemotherapy following surgery is beneficial. You would think this would be an easy decision. In fact, studies have not found a clear answer to this question for many cases. Chemotherapy has side effects and we don’t want to unnecessarily expose people to chemotherapy unless we are confident it is going to help them.
In stage I colon cancer, surgery to remove the tumor is the only treatment needed. Stage III tumors, which are tumors that have spread to the lymph nodes, are treated with surgery followed by chemotherapy . This has been shown to lead to improved survival.
Stage II disease falls somewhere in between. An estimated 75% of people with stage II colon cancer will be cancer-free 5 years later, without adjuvant chemotherapy, but 25% will not. Some of these patients may benefit from having chemotherapy after surgery. So, how do we know which patients are most likely to benefit from chemotherapy? That is the million-dollar question, which we will take a stab at addressing here.
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Treatment Of Stage Iv
- Original: Jan 17, 2021
Colon cancer is classified as stage IV or metastatic when the cancer has spread to distant locations in the body and cannot be primarily treated with surgery this may include the liver, lungs, bones, distant lymph nodes or other sites.
Patients diagnosed with stage IV colon cancer have an increasing number of treatment options as a result of genomic testing and the development of precision cancer medicines. Some patients may be cured of their cancer, and others can derive significant long-term survival benefit with appropriate sequencing of treatment based on their cancers genomic profile.1 The average survival duration has improved from less than one year to over 3 years and 20% of patients now survive 5 years or longer as a result of the development of more effective systemic therapy.
Understanding The Conventional Cancer System
Standard oncology insists on following typical chemotherapy protocols, despite documentation that indicates ineffectiveness with advanced stage cancers. Why, do you ask?
Well, you should know that virtually all cancer Center use fundamentally identical variations of protocol regimens because they follow each other. In fact, the more prestigious the organization, the more this occurs. It is not uncommon to attend their respective board meetings and hear the discussion repeatedly return to using the same old non-proven method.
Unbelievably, most new and innovative cancer information and treatments are coming from outside the United States. “It doesn’t work,” or “It isn’t proven” seem to be the popular answers given to patients with alternative curiosities. This is ironic, knowing that research indicates that traditional treatments ARE regularly being proven to NOT work
Not All Stage Ii Tumors Are Alike
Though stage II tumors are grouped together, there are some that appear more likely to come back after treatment and may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. There are some features of the tumor that increase the chance that the cancer will come back. If a tumor has these high-risk features, you should discuss with your provider the risks and benefits of adding chemotherapy after surgery. Studies have found only small improvements in survival with the addition of chemotherapy in stage II disease. This has to be weighed with the possible side effects of the chemotherapy treatment. Therefore, each person must make his/her own educated decisions regarding treatment, based on the information available.
Where You Have Chemotherapy
You usually have treatment into your bloodstream at the cancer day clinic. You might sit in a chair for a few hours so its a good idea to take things in to do. For example, newspapers, books or electronic devices can all help to pass the time. You can usually bring a friend or family member with you.
You have some types of chemotherapy over several days. You might be able to have some drugs through a small portable pump that you take home.
For some types of chemotherapy you have to stay in a hospital ward. This could be overnight or for a couple of days.
Some hospitals may give certain chemotherapy treatments to you at home. Your doctor or nurse can tell you more about this.
Clare Disney : Hello, my name is Clare and this is a cancer day unit.
So when you arrive and youve reported into with the receptionist, one of the nurses will call you through when your treatment is ready, sit you down and go through all the treatment with you.
Morning, Iris. My name is Clare. I am the nurse who is going to be looking after you today. Were going to start by putting a cannula in the back of your hand and giving you some anti sickness medication. And then I am going to come back to you and talk through the chemotherapy with you and the possible side effects you may experience throughout your treatment. Is that okay?
Each chemotherapy is made up for each individual patient, depending on the type of cancer they have and where it is and depending their height, weight and blood results.
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Health History Affects The Risk Of Developing Colon Cancer
Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer not having risk factors doesnt mean that you will not get cancer. Talk to your doctor if you think you may be at risk for colorectal cancer.
Risk factors for colorectal cancer include the following:
A fit and healthy father diagnosed with stage four cancer says he was left looking like the Nightmare on Elm Street after a horrific reaction to chemotherapy left him too embarrassed to go to his young sons cricket matches and is now hoping to save his life with a ground-breaking vaccine.
Geoffrey Seymour, 41, a procurement specialist, loved playing tennis, basketball and cricket and had always been healthy until just before his 41st birthday when he began experiencing blood in his stool.
Geoffrey was aware of this being a symptom for cancer from adverts on the television, so quickly went to his GP.
Geoffrey, who lives in Richmond, London, with his wife Santa, 44, and their son Marco, 10, was diagnosed with stage four colorectal cancer, which had spread from his colon to his liver a situation so severe and seemingly hopeless he likened it to being wrapped in a paper bag that is on fire.
He also had a bad reaction to chemotherapy severely blistering the skin on his face and, according to Geoffrey, making him look like Freddy Krueger from the 1984 horror film, Nightmare on Elm Street.
Can Immunotherapy Cure Stage 4 Colon Cancer
Thankfully right now immunotherapy is one of the most considered the treatment for treating stage 4 colon cancer. The medical oncologist in Jaipur will suggest it and help you to understand immunotherapy in detail.
Basically, the drugs referred to as checkpoint inhibitors target all the colorectal cancer cells, which are positive for specific gene changes. This focuses on a different aspect, for example, a high level of microsatellite instability for some changes in the mismatch repair genes. It is right to conclude that immunotherapy a solution when doctors dont want to perform the surgery, or due to some reasons, surgery is not an option for them to consider.
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Stage Iv Colon Cancer Patients Who Survive
Long-term survival and even cancer survival of stage IV colon cancer patients are statistically uncommon but not impossible. Stage IV colon cancer isn’t always terminal,” says hematologist-oncologist Ranju Gupta, M.D. “A proportion of patients, especially those with limited liver disease, do very well and can be potentially cured.”
However, this kind of “cure” requires multiple surgeries and other treatments that, by stage IV, relatively few patients are strong enough to survive.
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Treatment Options Of Stage 4 Colon Cancer
Surgery is unlikely to cure this cancer, but if there are only a few small metastasis to the liver or lungs, then they can be surgically removed along with the colon cancer, to increase the survival period as much as possible.
Before and after a surgical treatment, chemotherapy is also recommended, which aims to shrink the tumor. If surgical treatment is not possible, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is recommended and if with this type of chemotherapy cancer shrinks, then a surgical removal of cancer might be recommended. Chemotherapy is recommended after the surgery as well.
In cases when the tumor has spread to the liver, embolization or ablation of the tumor might be recommended, as another option to destroy the metastasis.
If the colon cancer has spread too much in various organs and tissues within the body, then surgical treatment is not an option. In these cases, the main treatment is chemotherapy. In terminal phases of stage 4 colon cancer, certain surgical procedures such as colectomy or diverting colostomy, or a placement of a stent during a colonoscopy might be performed. However, all these above-mentioned surgical treatments dont aim to cure cancer, but they only aim to relieve the signs of colon cancer.
If you have already tried a couple of the above-mentioned treatment options for last-stage colon cancer and they didnt provide the desired results, there is always another option such as a clinical trial.