Sunday, February 25, 2024

Potassium Iodide For Nuclear Radiation

What Is Potassium Iodide And What Is It Used For

Potassium Iodide Should Only Be Taken in Radiation Emergency: CDC

If there is a radiation emergency at a nuclear plant, large amounts of something called radioiodine could be put into the air. This could hurt your thyroid gland, or even cause thyroid cancer later on. You could breathe in the radioiodine or eat food that has some radioiodine in it. When you take the KI pill, it protects your thyroid gland from being harmed.

How To Take Ki

KI is recommended as a medical countermeasure to protect the thyroid from radioactive iodine in people under 40 and pregnant or breastfeeding. This is because cells are still growing and multiplying more quickly in younger populations, so they can be at risk for developing thyroid cancer after breathing in radioactive iodine.

Adults over 40 years old have a much lower risk of developing thyroid cancer and are more likely to have health conditions, like problems with their thyroids, that increase their risks for harmful health effects from KI. However, officials or healthcare providers may instruct adults over 40 to consume KI if the predicted exposure is high enough to cause hypothyroidism.

Breastfeeding people should consider temporarily stopping breastfeeding until evacuated from the impacted area, if possible, and safely feed your baby other ways. Radioactive iodine can be passed to infants through breast milk.

There are two U.S. FDA-approved forms of KI:

  • Tablets in two strengths, 130 milligram and 65 mg
  • Oral liquid solution available in one concentration, each milliliter containing 65 mg of KI. The solution comes in a 1 oz bottle with a dropper marked for 1, 0.5, and 0.25 mL dosing. For reference, 5 mL of liquid is one teaspoon. One mL would be about the size of a large drop of water.

Recommended Single Dosage by Age*:

Potassium Iodine : Recommended Single Dosage by Age

Pharmaceutical Countermeasures for Radiation Emergencies KI

What Are The Side Effects Of Ki

  • Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents,
  • National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

  • Management of Persons Contaminated with Radionuclides: Scientific and Technical Bases , National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD, 2010, Health Effects from Radiation Exposure , Iodine .
  • Uncertainties in Internal Radiation Dose Assessment , National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD, 2009.
  • Management of Persons Contaminated with Radionuclides: Handbook , National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD, 2008, Medical Treatments Arranged by Radionuclide .
  • Risk to the Thyroid from Ionizing Radiation , National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD, 2008.
  • Management of Persons Accidentally Contaminated with Radionuclides , National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD, 1980.
  • International Guidance

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    How Potassium Iodide Works

    Certain forms of iodine help your thyroid gland work right. Most people get the iodine they need from foods like iodized salt or fish. The thyroid can “store” or hold only a certain amount of iodine. In a nuclear radiation emergency, radioactive iodine may be released in the air. This material may be breathed or swallowed. It may enter the thyroid gland and damage it. The damage would probably not show itself for years. Children are most likely to have thyroid damage. If you take KI, it will block or reduce the chances that radioactive iodine will enter your thyroid gland.

    How And When To Take Potassium Iodide

    IOSAT Potassium Iodide Radiation Emergency Pills (NDC51803

    KI should be taken as soon as possible after public officials tell you. If you are told to repeat the dose, you should take the second dose 24 hours after the first dose. Do not take it sooner. More KI will not help you because the thyroid can “hold” only certain amounts of iodine. Taking more than 1 dose per day will increase the chances of side effects. The public officials will tell you how many days to take KI. You should take KI until the chances of major exposure to radioactive iodine by breathing or swallowing stops.

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    Who Should Take Iodine Tablets

    It is particularly important that children and adolescents under 18 years of age and pregnant and breast-feeding women take the tablets because they are at greatest risk of contracting thyroid cancer after being exposed to radioactive iodine.

    In special circumstances, it may also be appropriate for adults aged 18 to 40 to take the tablets. People over 40 are at very little risk of contracting thyroid cancer and do not need to take iodine tablets. Anyone who has had their thyroid gland removed need not take iodine tablets either.

    The public authorities will provide more detailed advice on which population groups should take the tablets in the event of a nuclear accident and when.

    Thyroid Protection After Nuclear Accidents/events

    KI was approved by the FDA in 1982 to protect the thyroid gland from radioactive iodine released accidentally from nuclear power plants or during a nuclear attack. In these events, many radionuclide products may be discharged to the atmosphere. Of these products, I131 is one of the most common, and it is particularly dangerous to the thyroid gland.1

    Doses of 130 mg KI provide 100 mg iodide, which is roughly 700 times greater than the normal nutritional need for iodine of 150 mcg per day for an adult. The KI in iodized salt is insufficient for this use, as 80 tablespoons would be needed to equal one tablet. See TABLE 1 for the recommended FDA dosing regimen for humans.2 KI cannot protect against any other causes of radiation poisoning or against radionuclide other than radioisotopes of iodine.

    Dosing Equivalency:For protection of the thyroid against I131 contamination, the convenient standard 130-mg KI pill is used, if available. As noted, the equivalent two drops of SSKI may be used for this purpose if the pills are not available.

    Protecting Effect:When KI is administered simultaneously with radiation exposure, the protective effect is approximately 97%. KI given 12 and 24 hours before exposure yields a 90% and 70% protective effect, respectively. However, KI administered 1 and 3 hours after exposure results in an 85% and 50% protective effect, respectively. KI administered more than 6 hours after exposure is thought to have a negligible protective effect.4

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    How Does Potassium Iodide Work

    If youâre in an area thatâs had a radiation emergency, the most effective option is evacuation. But potassium iodide can act as an extra measure to keep you safe.

    When you take potassium iodide, your thyroid gland absorbs it. If you get the right amount at the right time, it will saturate your thyroid gland. This can help block any inhaled or ingested radioactive iodine from being absorbed by your thyroid. This lowers your risk for radiation damage to that gland.

    Take Iodine Tablets But Consult Your Doctor Afterwards:

    Potassium Iodide (KI) and Radiation Emergencies
    • If you have a metabolic disorder you should check your metabolic tests 6-12 weeks after intake.
    • If you are pregnant and have a metabolic disorder, your metabolism should be monitored during pregnancy, starting 2 weeks after taking iodine.
    • If you have dermatitis herpetiformis your skin condition may become worse after taking iodine and your doctor may need to adjust your treatment.

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    How Much Potassium Iodide Should You Take

    You should take a different amount of potassium iodide based on your age and weight. Thereâs a liquid form, a 65-milligram pill, and a 130-milligram pill. For kids and babies that canât take pills, you can crush or cut pills to create smaller doses. Or you can give them a liquid form of potassium iodide.

    Follow these dosing guidelines:

    Adults 18 years old and up:

    • Take one 130-milligram pill of potassium iodide, or
    • 2 milliliters of liquid potassium iodide, or
    • 2 tablets of 65-milligram potassium iodide

    Children 12 to 18 years old who are over 150 pounds:

    • Take one 130-milligram pill of potassium iodide, or
    • 2 milliliters of liquid potassium iodide, or
    • 2 tablets of 65-milligram potassium iodide

    Children 12 to 18 years old and less than 150 pounds:

    • Take one 65-milligram pill of potassium iodide, or
    • 1 milliliter of liquid potassium iodide, or
    • Half of a 130-milligram potassium iodide tablet

    Children 3 to 12 years old:

    • Take one 65-milligram pill of potassium iodide, or
    • 1 milliliter of liquid potassium iodide, or
    • Half of a 130-milligram potassium iodide tablet

    Children 1 month to 3 years old:

    • Take half of a 65-milligram potassium iodide tablet, or
    • 0.5 milliliters of liquid potassium iodide, or
    • A fourth of a 130-milligram potassium iodide tablet

    Newborns to children 1 month old:

    • Take a fourth of a 65-milligram potassium iodide tablet, or
    • 0.25 milliliters of liquid potassium iodide, or
    • An eighth of a 130-milligram potassium iodide tablet

    What Does Potassium Iodide Do

    Potassium iodide protects the thyroid by blocking the absorption of radioactive iodine. This is known as iodine thyroid blocking.

    When you take potassium iodide, your thyroid becomes saturated with nonradioactive iodine. This causes your thyroid to fill up.

    As a result, your thyroid will not be able to absorb any type of iodine for the next 24 hours. Excess iodine, either nonradioactive or radioactive, will leave your body via your urine. This can help reduce the risk of thyroid cancer due to radioactive iodine.

    Its important to note that potassium iodide protects only your thyroid. It does not protect the rest of your body because its not a general radioprotective agent, according to the . As such, it doesnt prevent radioactive iodine from entering your body it only stops your thyroid from absorbing the iodine.

    Additionally, potassium iodide does not protect against external radiation exposure or other radioactive compounds.

    Potassium iodide is used during nuclear emergencies. You should take it only when public health officials specifically say to do so.

    To protect your thyroid, you must take potassium iodide within a certain time frame. According to the

    , the recommended doses for different groups are as follows:

    You should never take potassium iodide more often than instructed. This will not provide extra protection. Taking too much potassium iodide can lead to severe illness or death.

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    Pregnant Or Breastfeeding Women Or Babies Under 1 Month Of Age:

    Take as directed above and call a doctor as soon as possible. Repeat dosing should be avoided. It is recommended that thyroid function be checked in babies less than 1 month of age that take KI. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should also be checked by a doctor if repeat dosing is necessary. Although these precautions should be taken, the benefits of short-term use of KI to block uptake of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland far exceed its chances of side effects.

    Ukraine: Eu Donates 5 Million Potassium Iodide Tablets To Protect Ukrainians From Potential Radiation Exposure

    iOSAT Potassium Iodide Tablets, 130 mg (14 Tablets)

    On 26 August, the EU received a request for potassium iodide tablets from the Government of Ukraine as a preventative safety measure to increase the level of protection around the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant. The potassium iodide tablets would be used in limited scenarios to avoid that inhaled or swallowed radioactive iodine is absorbed by the thyroid.

    In response, the Emergency Response Coordination Centre swiftly mobilised 5.5 million potassium iodide tablets via the EU Civil Protection Mechanism for Ukraine, including 5 million from the rescEU emergency reserves and 500,000 from Austria. With a total financial value of over 500,000, the brunt of the assistance will be delivered to Ukraine from the rescEU reserve hosted by Germany.

    Commissioner for Crisis Management, Janez Lenari said: No nuclear power plant should ever be used as a war theatre. It is unacceptable that civilian lives are put in danger. All military action around the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant must stop immediately. The EU is pre-emptively delivering five million potassium iodide tablets to Ukraine from the rescEU strategic reserves to offer people protection in case of exposure to high levels of radiation. I want to thank Austria for donating an additional 500,000 tablets to Ukraine. We will continue to be on the lookout and stand ready to act, because preparedness saves lives.

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    Can People Have Reactions To Ki

    In general, most people who have taken KI have not had any reactions . If people did have a reaction, it did not last very long. In a few cases, babies had a reaction in their thyroids. Adults who had reactions had stomach problems or a rash. The federal government thinks the benefits of taking KI are much greater than the risks.

    Making A Potassium Iodide Liquid Mixture:

    1. Put one 65 mg KI tablet into a small bowl and grind it into a fine powder using the back of a metal teaspoon against the inside of the bowl. The powder should not have any large pieces. 2. Add 4 teaspoons of water to the crushed KI powder in the bowl and mix until the KI powder is dissolved in the water. 3. Take the KI water mixture solution made in step 2 and mix it with 4 teaspoons of low fat white or chocolate milk, orange juice, flat soda, raspberry syrup, or infant formula. 4. The KI liquid mixture will keep for up to 7 days in the refrigerator. It is recommended that the KI liquid mixtures be prepared weekly. Throw away unused portions. The amount of KI in the drink when mixed as described above is 8.125 mg per teaspoon. The number of teaspoons of the drink to give your child depends on your child’s age as described in the following table:

    Child’s Age

    Give your child this amount in teaspoons
    Over 12 to 18 years old who weigh less than 150 pounds 8 teaspoons will give you a 65 mg dose
    Over 3 to 12 years old 8 teaspoons will give you a 65 mg dose
    Over 1 month to 3 years old 4 teaspoons will give you a 32.5 mg dose
    Birth to 1 month 2 teaspoons will give you a 16.25 mg dose

    Note: This is the amount to give your child for one single dose in teaspoons . You should give your child one dose each day as recommended by the public officials.

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    Is Potassium Iodide A Magic Bullet For Radiation Exposure

    Potassium iodide can provide important protection for one organ from radiation due to one radionuclide. It can only provide protection for the thyroid gland from an intake of radioiodine. It doesn’t have any value in protecting other organs of the body or in providing protection from radiation from other radioactive nuclides. For example, potassium iodide has no protective value from a “dirty bomb” or a dispersion of spent nuclear fuel. Here’s why.

    This simple salt, potassium iodide , has received much attention lately, being featured on news programs, in news magazines, and even on eBay. But some of the claims and reports give misleading information about this salt’s effects on the body and its role in radiation safety. So, what is KI and how can it help?

    The compound KI is routinely added to table salt, sodium chloride , to iodize the salt. Iodine is an element that is taken from the bloodstream by the thyroid gland and is necessary for its proper functioning. The thyroid gland does not discriminate between radioactive and nonradioactive iodine.

    The only possible sources of large radioiodine releases are from a nuclear weapons denotation and a catastrophic accident in an operating nuclear reactor. Therefore, KI has no protective value from a “dirty bomb” or a dispersion of spent nuclear fuel.

    For more detailed scientific information on KI see the Health Physics Society’s Fact Sheet on Potassium Iodide.

    Ki Distribution Regulations In Canada

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    In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission has recently established a national standard for KI pill distribution. Nuclear power plant licensees are required to ensure that KI pills are pre-distributed to individuals living or working near a nuclear power plant. The Province of Ontario’s Office of the Fire Marshal & Emergency Management and the New Brunswick Emergency Management Organization are working towards developing a strategy to fulfill these requirements.

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    Use Of Potassium Iodide For Thyroid Protection During Nuclear Or Radiological Emergencies

    During a nuclear accident, radioactive iodine may be released to the environment in a plume or cloud and subsequently contaminate soil, surfaces, food and water. It may settle on an individuals skin and clothing, resulting in external exposure to radiation. Radioactive iodine deposited on skin can be removed by washing with warm water and soap.

    If radioactive iodine is inhaled or ingested , it results in internal exposure to radiation. When radioactive iodine enters the body, it accumulates in the thyroid gland in the same way non-radioactive stable iodine would due to the natural biokinetic pathway of iodine in the human body.

    Iodine is a necessary element of the human diet and is used by the thyroid gland to produce hormones that regulate the bodys metabolism. During a nuclear accident, the thyroid gland is at particular risk as it does not differentiate between stable and radioactive iodine. Uptake of radioactive iodine may increase the risk of thyroid cancer, particularly in children. The younger the age at exposure, the higher the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life. In children of Chernobyl, exposed to radioactive iodine with contaminated milk and food, the increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer was first detected 4 to 5 years after the time of exposure in 1986.

    Potassium Iodide: An Antidote For Radiation Exposure

    Manouchehr Saljoughian, PharmD, PhDDepartment of Pharmacy, Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, Berkeley, California

    US Pharm. 2011 36:HS-25-HS-28.

    Potassium iodide is an inorganic compound that is available from three manufacturers under different brand names as an antidote to radiation exposure. From a chemistry point of view, it is made from potassium hydroxide and iodine, and it is the most produced iodide compound in the world. It is preferred over sodium iodide salt because it is less hygroscopic and easier to handle it is an odorless and stable white crystalline powder. Among its other applications, it is used in the photography industry to form silver iodide and in chemical laboratories as a source of iodide in organic synthesis. KI is also used in biomedical research as a fluorescence quencher through its iodide ion. Upon extended exposure to air, KI becomes yellow as a result of the liberation of iodine, and small quantities of iodate may be formed due to oxidation.1

    Although KI has several medical and nutritional applications, its most important application is as an antidote to radiation. Recently, KI has been in high demand in the United States due to the warning about remote radiation exposure from the recent Japanese nuclear plant radioactive releases.2 For medical purposes, a saturated solution of KI is used to treat lung congestion and sporotrichosis and as an antiseptic in sore throats.

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