Metastatic Vs Second Primary Cancer
Metastatic cancers take the name of the primary cancer instead of the name of the organ theyve spread to. For instance, if you have lung cancer, but it has metastasized to the brain, it would still be called lung cancer.
Second primary cancer refers to a second type of cancer in a different primary site. A second primary cancer can occur at the same time or be identified later.
What Are Bone Metastases With Prostate Cancer
The ACS describes bone metastases as areas of bone containing cancer cells that have spread from another place in the body. In the case of prostate cancer, the cells have spread beyond the prostate gland. Since the cancer cells originated in the prostate gland, the cancer is referred to as metastatic prostate cancer.
The cancer cells spread to the bones by breaking away from the prostate gland and escaping attack from your immune system as they travel to your bones.
These cancer cells then grow new tumors in your bones. Cancer can spread to any bone in the body, but the spine is most often affected. Other areas cancer cells commonly travel to, according to the ACS, include the pelvis, upper legs and arms, and the ribs.
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What Is The Outlook
No cure is available for stage 4 prostate cancer. Your healthcare team will work with you to help control the cancer for as long as possible while maintaining a good quality of life.
Your outlook will depend on how fast the cancer is spreading and how well you respond to therapies.
With treatment, you can live for many years with metastatic prostate cancer.
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What If You Have Metastatic Castration
This means you have a type of metastatic prostate cancer thatÃ¢â¬â¢s able to grow and spread after you had hormone therapy to lower your testosterone levels.
Still, most people with mCRPC stay on androgen deprivation therapy because it might still be effective against some prostate cancer cells.
Your doctor may recommend adding other treatments like:
- Treatments to ease symptoms like pain
You could also find out if a clinical trial might be right for you.
Some people with mCRPC simply choose to try active surveillance or watchful waiting.
Treatment Options For Metastatic Prostate Cancer
If you have metastatic prostate cancer, your doctor will recommend hormonal therapy. This is part of a palliative care approach. The treatment will slow the growth of the primary tumour and the metastases, and help to manage the symptoms. Your doctor may also recommend that you have a type of chemotherapy when you start hormone therapy as this has been shown to help men live longer
Another name for hormonal therapy is androgen deprivation therapy . It can be performed surgically or with drug treatment.
Drug therapy to stop the production of androgens is done with LHRH agonists or LHRH antagonists. These drugs are available as depot injections right under the skin or into the muscle. Anti-androgens are drugs that block the action of androgens. They come as a pill. All of these therapies cause castration.
Castration has physical and emotional consequences. The most common are hot flushes, lower sex drive, and erectile dysfunction. The effects of surgical castration are permanent. In chemical castration, some of the symptoms may disappear after the treatment. Do not hesitate to discuss any concerns with your doctor.
If you have bone metastases which cause symptoms while you receive drug treatment, radiation therapy may help to relieve them and prevent fractures.
Anatomic structures and major veins of the male pelvis.
Anatomic structures and major veins of the male pelvis.
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How You Might Feel
When prostate cancer is advanced, it can no longer be cured. But treatment can control it for some time and help to relieve symptoms.
Finding out that your cancer cant be cured is distressing and can be a shock. Its common to feel uncertain and anxious. It’s normal not to be able to think about anything else.
Lots of information and support are available to you, your family and your friends. It can help to find out more about your cancer and the treatments you might have. Many people find that knowing more about their situation can make it easier to cope.
Talk to your doctor or nurse to understand:
- what your diagnosis means
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Treatments To Help Manage Symptoms
Advanced prostate cancer can cause symptoms, such as bone pain. Speak to your doctor or nurse if you have symptoms there are treatments available to help manage them. The treatments above may help to delay or relieve some symptoms. There are also specific treatments to help manage symptoms you may hear these called palliative treatments. They include:
This is the team of health professionals involved in your care. It is likely to include:
- a specialist nurse
- a chemotherapy nurse
- a diagnostic radiographer
- a therapeutic radiographer
- other health professionals, such as a dietitian or physiotherapist.
Your MDT will meet to discuss your diagnosis and treatment options. You might not meet all the health professionals straight away.
Your main point of contact might be called your key worker. This is usually your clinical nurse specialist , but might be someone else. The key worker will co-ordinate your care and help you get information and support. You may also have close contact with your GP and the practice nurses at your GP surgery.
Types Of Imaging Studies
If your doctor suspects your cancer might be spreading, they will likely order more imaging tests. A common imaging workup may include a bone scan and a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. An MRI might be done as well. Some research centers are also using magnetic MRIs or PET scans to further refine the staging of prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer Doctor Discussion Guide
Get our printable guide for your next doctorâs appointment to help you ask the right questions.
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What Happens If My Cancer Starts To Grow Again
Your first treatment may help keep your cancer under control. But over time, the cancer may change and it may start to grow again.
You will usually stay on your first type of hormone therapy, even if its not working so well. This is because it will still help to keep the amount of testosterone in your body low. But there are other treatments that you can have alongside your usual treatment, to help control the cancer and manage any symptoms. Other treatments include:
Which treatments are suitable for me?
Which treatments are suitable for you will depend on many things, including your general health, how your cancer responds to treatment, and which treatments youve already had. Talk to your doctor or nurse about your own situation, or speak to our Specialist Nurses.
Ethics Approval And Consent To Participate
As the data used was extracted from SEER dataset , Ethics approval and Consent to participate could be checked in SEER. We were permitted to have Internet access after our signed data-use agreement was approved by the SEER administration . The date collected from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhejiang University .
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Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer Spread To The Lymph Nodes
Lymph nodes are part of a system of tubes and glands in the body that filters body fluid and fights infection.
There are lots of lymph nodes in the groin area, which is close to the prostate gland. Prostate cancer can spread to the lymph nodes in the groin area, or to other parts of the body. The most common symptoms are swelling and pain around the area where the cancer has spread.
Cancer cells can stop lymph fluid from draining away. This might lead to swelling in the legs due to fluid build up in that area. The swelling is called lymphoedema.
How Prostate Cancer Spreads
Cancer cells sometimes break away from the original tumor and go to a blood or lymph vessel. Once there, they move through your body. The cells stop in capillaries â tiny blood vessels â at some distant location.
The cells then break through the wall of the blood vessel and attach to whatever tissue they find. They multiply and grow new blood vessels to bring nutrients to the new tumor. Prostate cancer prefers to grow in specific areas, such as lymph nodes or in the ribs, pelvic bones, and spine.
Most break-away cancer cells form new tumors. Many others donât survive in the bloodstream. Some die at the site of the new tissue. Others may lie inactive for years or never become active.
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Radiation Therapy For Metastatic Prostate Cancer
Radiation therapy may be used to treat men with high-risk prostate cancer or stage 4A cancer .
In these instances, external beam radiation therapy is commonly used, also known as EBRT. Using an external machine, a doctor sends targeted beams of radiation to the cancer site. Its administered five days a week in an outpatient facility throughout several weeks.
Radiation may be targeted to cancer that has spread to the bones as well, helping reduce pain.
Neurologic Complications Of Prostate Cancer
RAMSIS BENJAMIN, M.D., M.P.H., Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
Am Fam Physician. 2002 May 1 65:1834-1841.
This article exemplifies the AAFP 2002 Annual Clinical Focus on cancer: prevention, detection, management, support, and survival.
Neurologic complications continue to pose problems in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. From 15 to 30 percent of metastases are the result of prostate cancer cells traveling through Batsonâs plexus to the lumbar spine. Metastatic disease in the lumbar area can cause spinal cord compression. Metastasis to the dura and adjacent parenchyma occurs in 1 to 2 percent of patients with metastatic prostate cancer and is more common in those with tumors that do not respond to hormone-deprivation therapy. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, the most frequent form of brain metastasis in prostate cancer, has a grim prognosis. Because neurologic complications of metastatic prostate cancer require prompt treatment, early recognition is important. Physicians should consider metastasis in the differential diagnosis of new-onset low back pain or headache in men more than 50 years of age. Spinal cord compression requires immediate treatment with intravenously administered corticosteroids and pain relievers, as well as prompt referral to an oncologist for further treatment.
More Common Neurologic Complications in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer*
? = unknown.
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Metastatic Prostate Cancer Symptoms
With metastatic prostate cancer, the patient may notice different symptoms than those generally associated with other stages of the disease. Some of the most frequently occurring stage 4 prostate cancer symptoms include:
- Bone pain, particularly in the pelvis, ribs, skull and spine
- Unexplained weight loss
- General feeling of being unwell
- Changes in urinary habits, such as needing to go more often
- Cough, breathlessness or other changes involving the lungs and chest
Not everyone with metastatic prostate cancer will experience each of these symptoms, but patients should speak with their care teams if they notice any such changes.
Prostatic Metastasis Of Pulmonary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma
Kumi Shimizu1, Taichiro Goto2 , Arafumi Maeshima3, Yoshitaka Oyamada1, Ryoichi Kato2
1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan 2. Department of General Thoracic Surgery, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan 3. Department of Pathology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.
Corresponding author: Taichiro Goto, MD., Department of General Thoracic Surgery, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8902, Japan. Phone: +81-3-3411-0111 Fax: +81-3-3412-9811 Email: taichirojukuin.keio.ac.jp.More
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Pulmonary Metastasis As Sole Manifestation Of Relapse In Previously Treated Localised Prostate Cancer: Three Exceptional Case Reports
Joaquim Peres Gago1, Gabriela Câmara1, Jorge Dionísio2 and Ana Opinião1
1Department of Medical Oncology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisbon 1099-023, Portugal
2Department of Pulmonology, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisbon 1099-023, Portugal
Correspondence to: Joaquim Peres Gago. Email:
What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer
Advanced prostate cancer is cancer that has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body. It develops when prostate cancer cells move through the blood stream or lymphatic system.
Watch our video about advanced prostate cancer.
You might hear cancer that has spread described as metastatic prostate cancer, secondary prostate cancer, secondaries, metastases or mets. It is still prostate cancer, wherever it is in the body.
Prostate cancer can spread to any part of the body, but most commonly to the bones and lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are part of your lymphatic system, which is part of the bodys immune system. Lymph nodes are found throughout the body including in the pelvic area, near the prostate.
Advanced prostate cancer can cause symptoms, such as fatigue , bone pain, and problems urinating.
The symptoms you have will depend on where the cancer has spread to. Speak to your doctor or nurse if you have any symptoms. There are treatments available to help manage them.
Its not possible to cure advanced prostate cancer. But treatments can help keep it under control and manage any symptoms.
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The Prostate Cancer Foundation Announces Inaugural $30 Million Tactical Awards Program For Innovative Prostate Cancer Research
LOS ANGELES, Dec. 6, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — The Prostate Cancer Foundation today announced four inaugural Class of 2022 TACTICAL Award recipients. This $30 million program will support cross-disciplinary pioneering research toward the goal of developing 21st Century therapies for the most life-threatening form of prostate cancer.
PCF TACTICAL Awards are intended to support large-scale, multi-institutional team research projects addressing metastatic, lethal prostate cancer. The TACTICAL Campaign is PCF’s largest effort to date to develop novel therapies that target the molecular mechanisms driving lethal prostate cancer. PCF TACTICAL Awards provide up to $10 million in total funding over a three-year period.
“We are making tremendous progress in developing new therapies for prostate cancer that prolong life, and improve the quality of life, but still an estimated 375,000 men will die of the disease this year,” says Charles J. Ryan, MD, PCF President and CEO. “Recent research advances are revealing the mechanisms driving resistance to these therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer or metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We must now develop therapies that target these mechanisms.”
2022 PCF TACTICAL Awards
For full project descriptions visit .
About the Prostate Cancer Foundation
Surgery For Metastatic Prostate Cancer
Unlike with localized prostate cancer, surgery isnt usually used to treat metastatic cancer. However, it may be used in some cases if it can help improve a patients quality of life, often to resolve urinary problems or stop bleeding.
If prostate cancer is locally advanced and hasnt spread far, a radical prostatectomy may still be an option. A radical prostatectomy is a surgical procedure in which the prostate is removed, along with any nearby tissue that contains prostate cancer cells.
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A Note About Sex And Gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms male, female, or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. .
- neuroendocrine tumors
Experts believe some males can also have a mixed type, which combines a common and a rare type of prostate cancer. Rare forms of prostate cancer are more likely to metastasize.
Prostate cancer overall is the second most common cancer in males after skin cancer. Doctors discover most prostate cancers in the prostate or nearby tissues. However, about 16% of new cases spread into distant locations.
Between 2012 and 2018, about more cases of prostate cancer occurred in the United States.
Research has shown the incidence of prostate cancer for African American males is that of people who are white. Among African Americans, the cancer types tend to be more aggressive, and deaths are double compared with white Americans.
The differences in outcomes for African American males may originate from:
- Physical: Higher prostate-specific antigen levels in the blood.
- Genetic: Some African American males carry certain gene mutations or chromosomal abnormalities that can increase prostate cancer risk.
- Environmental: Social disparities may cause people from historically marginalized groups to live on a lower income and have limited access to healthy food.
- Social: Disparities in healthcare can limit genetic screening or disease treatment access, leading to underdiagnosis.
Other people should begin screening at the age of 50.
What Are The Treatments For Metastatic Prostate Cancer
It mainly depends on the stage of your cancer. Metastatic prostate cancer is stage IV, and doctors divide it into two types: IVA and IVB.
If you have stage IVA prostate cancer, that means the disease has spread to nearby lymph nodes but not to distant parts of your body. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re healthy enough to get treatment, or if youÃ¢â¬â¢re having symptoms from the cancer, your doctor may recommend one of these treatment options:
External beam radiation treatment with androgen deprivation therapy . During EBRT, a machine outside your body sends beams of radiation to your prostate gland. Radiation destroys cancer cells.
ADT is a type of hormone therapy. It involves taking medications to lower the levels of male sex hormones that your testicles make, or getting surgery to remove the testicles. Androgens, like testosterone, often fuel the growth of prostate cancer cells.
Along with ADT, your doctor might also have you take a drug called abiraterone . It helps stop cells in other parts of your body, like your adrenal glands, from making androgens.
ADT with or without abiraterone. If your doctor recommends this option, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t need to get external beam radiation treatment along with it.
If you have stage IVB prostate cancer, the disease has spread to distant organs, like your bones. Your doctor can give you treatments that help keep your cancer under control for as long as possible and improve your quality of life.
Some treatment options are:
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