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Prostate Cancer Statistics Worldwide 2020

Cancer Screening Diagnosis And Treatment By Race And Ethnicity

10 Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer

Research shows that the overall rate of cancer screening is lower among Black, Hispanic, Asian, and AIAN populations compared to their White counterparts, but people of color are more likely than White people to receive certain types of screening. Reasons for these variations in screening patterns across different groups are not well understood. Research suggests that outside of health insurance coverage and geographic differences, participation in cancer screening is related to multiple factors, such as provider recommendation, between patients and providers, perceptions of cancer screening, and gender differences in cancer screening behaviors, which may vary across communities.

Biomarkers In The Context Of As

The effectiveness of observational management may also be enhanced by new innovations such as novel biomarkers in men considering AS. Novel tests such as Prolaris , Oncotype DX Prostate , and Decipher Biopsy analyze genomic patterns in biopsy specimens and can aid in decision making when considering AS versus definitive treatment. However, the underlying data that validates many of these novel biomarkers involve relatively few men of African descent relative to the general population . While there is no evidence to date to suggest that these tests perform differently in AA men compared to CA men, the fact that there may be biologic differences in the cancers in AA compared to CA men, maintains the possibility that these tests may be affected, though this remains to be seen. It is currently an area of increasing research. While these tests can be helpful in AA men, it is important physicians understand their strengths and limitations, and discuss these with their patients.

Etiology And Risk Factors

The etiology of prostate cancer is the subject of numerous studies and remains largely unknown compared to other common cancers. The well-established prostate cancer risk factors are advanced age, ethnicity, genetic factors and family history . Other factors positively associated with prostate cancer include diet , obesity and physical inactivity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, infections, and environmental exposure to chemicals or ionizing radiation .

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An enlarged prostate can also be the cause of other problems. If the enlarged prostate is causing symptoms, the best treatment would be a natural remedy. In the meantime, there are treatments for a wide range of conditions that cause a man to experience pain. A common surgical procedure involves an electric loop, laser, or electro-stimulation. The procedure is a safe and effective option for treating enlarged or symptomatic BPH.

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Cancer Is One Of The Leading Causes Of Death

Prostate Cancer Patient

Almost 10 Million people die from cancer annually

Cancer is one of the worlds largest health problems. The Global Burden of Disease estimates that 9.56 million people died prematurely as a result of cancer in 2017. Every sixth death in the world is due to cancer.2

The Global Burden of Disease is a major global study on the causes and risk factors for death and disease published in the medical journal The Lancet.3

Cancer is a particularly common cause of death in richer countries where people are less likely do die of infectious diseases and causes of deaths that lead to very early deaths for people in poverty.

The chart is shown for the global total, but can be explored for any country or region using the change country toggle. Switching to one of the richer countries shows that the share of deaths attributed to cancer is higher.

Because cancer is one of the leading causes of death, it is one of the worlds most pressing problems to make progress against this disease.

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Who Dies From This Cancer

Because we have screening for prostate cancer, most of the time it is caught before it spreads to other parts of the body. Men who have prostate cancer that is characterized as localized or regional are not as likely to die as men whose cancer is distant. In general prostate cancer has excellent survival rates, but death rates are higher in African American men, men who have advanced stage cancer, and men who are between the ages of 75 and 84. Prostate cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The death rate was 18.8 per 100,000 men per year based on 20162020, age-adjusted.

Death Rate per 100,000 Persons by Race/Ethnicity: Prostate Cancer

Males

Figure: Prostate and Nearby Organs

This cancer forms in tissues of the prostate . The prostate surrounds the urethra, the tube through which urine flows. A healthy prostate is about the size of a walnut. If the prostate grows too large, it squeezes the urethra. This may slow or stop the normal flow of urine. Prostate cancer usually occurs in older men.

Additional Information

American Cancer Society Report Sheds Light On Cancer Statistics And Racial/ethnic Disparities

For World Cancer Day, CancerNetwork® reviews key highlights from the Cancer Facts & Figures 2022 report from the American Cancer Society, with updates in cancer incidence, mortality, and survival across patient subgroups.

Cancer Facts & Figures 2022 from the American Cancer Society highlights important developments and trends in cancer, including incidence, mortality, and survival by age, sex, and race. In honor of World Cancer Day, CancerNetwork® touches on some of the key highlights from the report.

The population-based incidence data were gathered from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program since 1973 and the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions National Program of Cancer Registries since 1995.1 Additionally, mortality findings from 1930 through 2019 were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Cases of cancer were defined by International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, except for childhood and adolescent disease.

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Can Racial/ethnic Disparities In Prostate Cancer Be Eliminated

Based on these observations, it is likely that a personalized approach to CaP prevention and treatment may be required. Rather than focus solely on race/ethnicity-specific differences and target large demographically defined groups, basic discovery of underlying risk factors and genomics may be required to understand and address an individuals risk, prevention, and treatment options. These risk factors and genomic traits may correlate with race or ethnicity, but the continued use of race/ethnicity as the stratifier around which CaP prevention and treatment is based may have limited efficacy. Thus, a precision medicine approach to addressing CaP disparities should be prioritized as a means of eliminating CaP disparities by race/ethnicity.

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Other Racial Disparities In Cancer

Mayo Clinic Explains Prostate Cancer

Although cancer incidence is higher in the White populationwhich may be attributed to an overdiagnosis of breast cancerBlack men had the highest sex-specific incidence, which was 79% higher than Asian and Pacific Islander and 6% higher than White men from 2014 to 2018.Moreover, White women appeared to have the highest incidence of cancer from 2013 to 2018, which was 9% higher than in Black women despite this group having higher mortality by 12%. Interestingly, despite having a 4% lower incidence, Black women have a 41% higher mortality from breast cancer vs White women. Black men share similar disparities in cancer mortality, at more than double the rate of Asian and Pacific Islander patients and 19% higher than White male patients.

Despite the gap in disparities appearing significant, investigators note that Black/White disparities in mortality have decreased from 33% in 1993 to 14% in 2019.

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Deaths From Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, behind only lung cancer. About 1 man in 41 will die of prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer can be a serious disease, but most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die from it. In fact, more than 3.1 million men in the United States who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point are still alive today.

Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

American Cancer Society. Facts & Figures 2022. American Cancer Society. Atlanta, Ga. 2022.

National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate Cancer. Accessed at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html on March 15, 2019.

Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA . SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2015, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2015/, based on November 2017 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2018.

American Cancer Society. Facts & Figures 2022. American Cancer Society. Atlanta, Ga. 2022.

National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate Cancer. Accessed at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html on March 15, 2019.

Last Revised: January 12, 2022

Who Gets This Cancer

Prostate cancer occurs only in men, and it is more common in older men than younger men. It is more likely to occur in men with a family history of prostate cancer and men of African American descent. The rate of new cases of prostate cancer was 112.7 per 100,000 men per year based on 20152019 cases, age-adjusted.

Rate of New Cases per 100,000 Persons by Race/Ethnicity: Prostate Cancer

Males

SEER 22 20152019, All Races, Males

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Incidence And Mortality Data

Public Health England run cancer registration in England and created the 19902010 England National Cancer Data Repository Analysis Dataset, which brought together data from each English Cancer Registry for the period 19902010. In accordance with the National Health Service Act 2006, PHE is permitted to hold and process cancer data on people without their explicit consent. NCDR data on men diagnosed with prostate cancer were linked to the HES database, which contains data on inpatient and day case episodes for patients. The HES records contain a self-reported ethnicity field and so this database is the main source of ethnicity data for cancer patients. Linkage between NCDR and HES was based on NHS number, or postcode and date of birth if NHS number was not available. Overall, 99 % of people diagnosed with cancer were able to be linked.

PHE provided prostate cancer incidence, prostate cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality by 5-year age groups and major ethnic groups for 2008, 2009 and 2010 in England . As these were aggregated figures from routinely collected data, no ethical approval was needed for this study.

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Chronic Inflammation And Prostatitis

Prostate Cancer Patient

There is a strong link between prostate cancer and inflammation, and in 1863, Rudolf Virchow was the first to identify the high density of leukocytes in neoplastic samples, suggesting a positive association between inflammation and cancer . After that, both epidemiological and biological studies provided evidence that inflammation is behind the high-grade or aggressive prostate tumors and ultimately metastatic spread . The evidence-based knowledge so far supports the role of inflammatory responses in the regulation of tumor microenvironment through the remodeling of the extracellular matrix and initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition . Indeed, inflammatory cells release growth factors and cytokines within the tumor microenvironment to promote angiogenesis and remodeling of the ECM, while further inflammatory cytokines released within the reactive stroma induce EMT-mediated responses .

Patients with elevated PSA often present with intraprostatic inflammation detected with biopsies . Recently, an inflammatory effector, pentraxin 3, has been identified as a biomarker for predicting tumor progression due to prostatic inflammation in prostate cancer patients .

Prostatitis is the inflammation of the prostate gland that is hard to diagnose because it is often asymptomatic . Notably, men with symptoms of prostatitis are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer as a result of the increased prevalence of biopsy .

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Prostate Cancer Incidence And Mortality In 2020

The incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in 2020 of the major countries are shown in Table 1. Globally, more than 1.4 million new prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in 2020. The crude incidence rate was 36.0 per 100,000 males and the ASIR was 30.7 per 100,000 males. Data by continents in Figure 1 showed that, ASIRs in Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern America and Oceania exceeded 59 per 100,000 males, while ASIRs in Africa and Asia were lower than 30 per 100,000 males. However, the regional distribution of ASMR was quite different, with the highest rate in Africa, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe, Oceania, Northern America and Asia.

Figure 1. Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in 2020 by continent. Incidence rate Mortality rate ASIR, age-standardized incidence rate ASMR, age-standardized mortality rate.

ASIRs substantially vary more than 123-fold among 174 countries, wherein the highest ASIR was 110.7 per 100,000 males in Ireland from Northern Europe while the lowest ASIR was 0.9 per 100,000 males in Bhutan from South-Central Asia. Similarly, ASMRs varied by more than 77-fold among 174 countries, from the lowest ASMR of 0.54 per 100,000 males in Bhutan from South-Central Asia to the highest ASMR of 41.7 per 100,000 males in Zimbabwe from Eastern Africa, in which the crude mortality rate was only 12.2 per 100,000 .

Expected Cancer Incidence In 2022

Investigators expect an estimated incidence of new invasive cancers in the United States of 1,918,030, translating to 5250 new cases daily. Most common malignancies include 51,400 new cases of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in women, as well as 97,920 cases of melanoma in situ of the skin. The most diagnosed cancers in men are estimated to be prostate , lung and bronchus , colon and rectum , and urinary bladder .2 For women, the most diagnosed cancers are expected to be breast , lung and bronchus , colon and rectum , and uterine corpus .

Men have a slightly higher lifetime probability of being diagnosed with invasive cancer compared with women . The reasons for this are not completely understood but could be due in part to a higher exposure to cancer-causing environments and biological factors.

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Risk Of Prostate Cancer

About 1 man in 8 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.

Prostate cancer is more likely to develop in older men and in non-Hispanic Black men. About 6 cases in 10 are diagnosed in men who are 65 or older, and it is rare in men under 40. The average age of men at diagnosis is about 66.

Latest Prostate Cancer Data

Hormone Therapy & Advanced Therapies for Prostate Cancer, Celestia Higano, MD | 2021 Mid-Year Update

Prostate cancer is the 2nd most commonly occurring cancer in men and the 4th most common cancer overall. There were more than 1.4 million new cases of prostate cancer in 2020.

The 10 countries with the highest rates of prostate cancer and the highest number of deaths from prostate cancer in 2020 are shown in the tables below.

ASR = age-standardised rates. These are a summary measure of the rate of disease that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Standardisation is necessary when comparing populations that differ with respect to age because age has a powerful influence on the risk of dying from cancer.

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Inequity In Health Care Between Higher And Lower Resourced Settings

For the 1st time, female breast cancer has become the most commonly diagnosed cancer, surpassing lung cancer, in particular due to high prevalence in low- and middle-income countries . Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths, not only in many LMICs but also in most higher-income regions like North America, Europe and Australia.

There continue to be significant disparities between higher and lower-income countries, with GLOBOCAN 2020 predicting that countries classified with “Low or Medium Human Development Index “will have the greatest relative increases in #cancer incidence by 2040.

The Need For More Reliable National Cancer Data

IARC draws attention to a situation of limited data in certain countries and emphasises the need for better cancer data registries:

“Caution must be exercised when interpreting these estimates, given the limited quality and coverage of cancer data worldwide at present, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. IARCs approach is not only to evaluate, compile, and use the data from the Agencys collaborators in these estimates but also to work alongside national staff to improve local data quality, registry coverage, and analytical capacity. The clear need for investment in population-based cancer registration in low- and middle-income countries led to the launch of the Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development , coordinated by IARC. The goal of the GICR is to inform cancer control through defined improvements in the coverage, quality, and use of population-based cancer registration data worldwide.”

For instance, the International Journal of Cancer reports in an article, “Progress, challenges and ways forward supporting cancer surveillance in Latin America“, that less than 3% and 10% of the respective populations of Central America and South America are covered by highquality cancer registries.

Effective National Cancer Control Plans, a primary tool in the fight against cancer, rely on solid data registries. For more information on the IARC Regional Hubs for Cancer Registration, please visit the GICR webpage.

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The European Cancer Burden In : Incidence And Mortality Estimates For 40 Countries And 25 Major Cancers

  • 1 These authors contributed equally to the work.Tadeusz Dyba1 These authors contributed equally to the work.Affiliations
  • 1 These authors contributed equally to the work.Giorgia Randi1 These authors contributed equally to the work.Affiliations
  • 1 These authors contributed equally to the work.
  • The 2020 incidence estimates derived from 151 population-based cancer registries’ data.
  • Over 4 million new cancer cases and 1.9 million cancer-related deaths are estimated in Europe for 2020.
  • Half the overall cancer diagnoses are from breast , colorectal , lung and prostate cancers.
  • The most common cancer-related deaths are from lung , colorectal , breast and pancreatic cancers.
  • The 2020 estimates are key to assess and monitor cancer-control measures across Europe.

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