Sunday, March 3, 2024

Prostate Cancer Treatment Radiation Seeds Side Effects

How Long Does Imrt Treatment Last

Side Effects of Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer | Prostate Cancer Staging Guide

IMRT is usually given to you five days a week for four to eight weeks. The total dose of radiation and the number of treatments you need will depend on the size of your prostate cancer, your general health, and other medical treatments you may need.

Using many small doses of radiation each day rather than a few large doses helps protect your healthy cells in the treatment area. Weekend rest breaks let your healthy cells get better.

It is very important that you have all of your scheduled IMRT treatments. If you miss or put off your radiation treatments, your radiation therapy might not work as well as if you had all your radiation treatments.

Coping With The Side Effects

The side effects of both surgery and radiation can vary from mild to more severe and potentially significantly impact someones life.

The side effects of urinary and bowel problems can be distressing. There are ways to help manage these, such as with pelvic floor exercise, bladder training, and incontinence products. Other coping strategies include:

  • Urinating every few hours
  • Limiting caffeine intake
  • Talking to your healthcare team about any medications or other interventions that may be helpful

Sexual dysfunction related to prostate cancer treatment can also be an unwelcome side effect. Helpful ways to cope with this can include:

  • Having open communication with your partner
  • Prioritizing activities for the day and taking breaks as needed

What Is Proton Beam Therapy For Prostate Cancer

Proton beam therapy for prostate cancer is a noninvasive external radiation treatment that targets and destroys cancer cells by disrupting their DNA. Proton therapy can precisely target prostate tumors, while better sparing surrounding tissues and organs from radiation exposure.

Proton therapy uses proton particles that can be set to travel a certain distance into the tumor and stop. This allows radiation oncologists to deliver the right dose of radiation to different parts of the tumor to effectively kill prostate cancer.

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Prostate Seed Implantation At Princeton Radiation Oncology Treats Prostate Cancer Effectively

Prostate seed implantation is a minimally invasive procedure for treating prostate cancer in which radioactive seeds are placed in the prostate gland to target cancer cells while maximizing the preservation of healthy tissue. This outpatient procedure requires general anesthesia and takes only a few hours. Most patients return to normal activities within two to three days.

At Princeton Radiation Oncology, our doctors are experts in treating prostate cancer patients using prostate seed implantation, having pioneered its use more than two decades ago.

Does Msk Offer Proton Therapy For Prostate Cancer

SpaceOAR and Gold Seeds

Some men with prostate cancer may choose to receive another form of external-beam radiation therapy called proton therapy. Proton therapy can deliver a high radiation dose to the prostate while lowering the radiation dose to normal surrounding tissue. It is unclear if there is any advantage to proton therapy compared with IMRT. We are now studying how these approaches compare in terms of side effects and outcomes at the New York Proton Center. These efforts are being led by radiation oncologist Daniel Gorovets.

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Robotic Prostatectomy Or Radiotherapy For Localised Prostate Cancer

Overview by Professor Christopher Eden Consultant Urological SurgeonThe Royal Surrey County Hospital

Prostatectomy or radiotherapy for prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is a unique disease in that the choice of treatment is usually devolved to the patient, although the care-giver discussing treatment options may steer patients in a certain direction depending on age, obesity and co-existing medical conditions.

Active surveillance is a valid option for patients with a low volume of Gleason 6 or 7 prostate cancer but the burden of follow-up together with the uncertainty regarding outcome persuades approximately 1/3 of patients on AS to opt for active treatment within 3 years, joining another 1/3 of patients who show evidence of tumour progression or spread in having treatment.

Surgery or radiotherapy?

Although experimental options exist in the form of focal high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy and whole-gland phototherapy follow-up is short and what follow-up we do have in published series shows that patients treated in this way trade off fewer side-effects against cancer control.

Long term survival

For more details see the link below.

Possible Risks And Side Effects Of Brachytherapy

Radiation precautions: If you get permanent brachytherapy, the seeds will give off small amounts of radiation for several weeks or months. Even though the radiation doesnt travel far, your doctor may advise you to stay away from pregnant women and small children during this time. If you plan on traveling, you might want to get a doctors note regarding your treatment, as low levels of radiation can sometimes be picked up by detection systems at airports.

There’s also a small risk that some of the seeds might move . You may be asked to strain your urine for the first week or so to catch any seeds that might come out. You may be asked to take other precautions as well, such as wearing a condom during sex. Be sure to follow any instructions your doctor gives you. There have also been reports of the seeds moving through the bloodstream to other parts of the body, such as the lungs. As far as doctors can tell, this is uncommon and doesnt seem to cause any ill effects.

These precautions arent needed after HDR brachytherapy, because the radiation doesnt stay in the body after treatment.

Bowel problems: Brachytherapy can sometimes irritate the rectum and cause a condition called radiation proctitis. Bowel problems such as rectal pain, burning, and/or diarrhea can occur, but serious long-term problems are uncommon.

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What Is Proton Beam Radiation Therapy

This type of therapy treats tumors with protons instead of X-ray radiation. It may be able to deliver more radiation specifically to a prostate cancer tumor with less damage to normal tissue.

Proton beam therapy might be a safe treatment option when a doctor decides that using X-rays could be risky for a patient. But so far, research hasnât shown that it works better than traditional radiation therapy against solid cancers in adults.

The side effects of proton beam therapy are similar to the ones that other types of radiation treatment bring on. But since proton therapy may be less damaging to normal tissue, the side effects might be milder.

After treatment, you may gradually have ones like:

  • Fatigue or low energy
  • Sore, reddened skin around the area where you got treated
  • Hair loss around the treatment spot

One of the disadvantages of proton therapy is that it might not be covered by all insurance companies. Youâd need to check with your health plan to find out.

Proton therapy also isnât widely available. You can get it only at certain centers in the U.S.

What Is The Procedure For The Placement Of The Implants

Radiation Therapy Side Effects for Prostate Cancer Patients
  • In the operating theater, spinal or general anesthesia is given, and the legs are gently lifted and cushioned.

  • The prostate is scanned using an ultrasonic probe placed into the rectum. Throughout the whole process, this probe is stationary.

  • A personalized treatment plan is created using these ultrasound images.

  • The specified number of radioactive seeds are then inserted into the needles.

  • The seeds in that needle are released once precise needle insertion has been verified. The radioactive seeds are implanted one at a time until all have been placed.

  • At times, needle insertion might be hindered by the pubic arch due to the pelvic anatomy, patient posture at the time of surgery, and the size of the prostate gland.

  • There is no need for cutting or incision during this surgery.

  • If blood is detected in the urine, a catheter may be temporarily inserted into the bladder. All patients are instructed on how to catheterize themselves at home should the need arise to empty the bladder.

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What To Expect For Your Treatment

You’ll get ERBT at a hospital or clinic. You’ll likely not have to stay overnight. The total length of time for your treatment depends on the type and dose of radiation, as well as why you are getting it. For instance, if you’re getting radiation as the main treatment for an early-stage prostate cancer, you’ll likely get treatments 5 days a week for several weeks in a row. If you’re getting radiation therapy to treat bone pain, you’ll probably need fewer treatments.

Each treatment is much like getting an X-ray, but the radiation is stronger. You lie on a table while the machine delivers the radiation. The actual treatment is quick and doesn’t hurt, but getting you into the proper place for treatment each time takes longer. When you are in the right position, the radiation therapist leaves the room and controls the machine. The therapist can see you. And you can talk with and hear the therapist the whole time.

Your radiation oncologist or nurse can tell you what to expect during treatment.

Getting Ready For Ebrt

Before starting EBRT, you may have a lymph node biopsy to see if your cancer has spread outside the prostate gland. One or more lymph nodes are removed to see if there are cancer cells in them. Other tests may also be done.

Before you start radiation, youll have an appointment to plan your treatment. This is called simulation. During this appointment:

  • Youll lie on a table while a radiation therapist uses a machine to find exactly where the radiation will be aimed. The therapist may mark your skin with tiny dots of permanent ink or tattoos. These are used to aim the radiation at the exact same place each time.

  • CT scans or other imaging tests might be done to help locate the cancer.

  • A plastic mold or cast of your body may be made for some types of ERBT. The mold helps you get in the same position and holds you still for each treatment.

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Proton Therapy Versus Prostatectomy

Early-stage prostate cancer can sometimes be treated by removing all of the prostate gland along with some nearby tissues a surgery called radical prostatectomy. This comes with numerous risks and potential complications, including infertility, erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence.

Proton therapy, in comparison, is a noninvasive procedure that does not remove the prostate or the tumor. It precisely targets radiation at the tumor to disrupt its DNA, so that it cannot grow or spread, and eventually it is eliminated. Proton therapy for prostate cancer also carries risks of erectile dysfunction and bowel and urinary problems, but its less likely to cause urinary incontinence and complete impotence.

Your doctor will discuss pros and cons of proton therapy, prostatectomy and other treatments for your prostate cancer type and stage.

How Does It Work

Prostate Brachytherapy

There are multiple types of radiation treatments that can be used for prostate cancer.

External beam radiation: This treatment is administered through a specialized machine that directs beams of radiation to targeted areas in the prostate. It is usually given in daily doses five days a week for about six weeks.

Stereotactic radiation: This type of radiation uses advanced images of the prostate with a different type of radiation machine. This may also be referred to as Gamma Knife or CyberKnife.

This type of radiation often uses much higher doses than standard external beam radiation. However, it is given in such a way that healthy tissue around the prostate is spared from high doses of radiation. Because of the high doses of radiation, this type of treatment may only need five or fewer treatments.

Brachytherapy:During this type of radiation, radioactive seeds are placed into the prostate. These radiation seeds emit radiation for a period of time and remain in the prostate even after the radiation has left.

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Radiopharmaceuticals That Target Psma

Prostate-specific membrane antigen is a protein that is often found in large amounts on prostate cancer cells.

Lutetium Lu 177 vipivotide tetraxetan is a radiopharmaceutical that attaches to PSMA, bringing radiation directly to the prostate cancer cells.

This drug can be used to treat prostate cancer that has spread and that has already been treated with hormone therapy and chemotherapy. The cancer cells must also have the PSMA protein. Your doctor will order a PSMA PET scan before you get this drug to make sure the cancer cells have PSMA.

This drug is given as an injection or infusion into a vein , typically once every 6 weeks for up to 6 doses.

Possible side effects

Some of the more common side effects of this drug include:

This drug can lower blood cell counts:

  • A low red blood cell count can cause tiredness, weakness, pale skin, or shortness of breath.
  • A low blood platelet count can lead to bleeding or bruising more easily than normal, or bleeding that is hard to stop.
  • A low white blood cell count can lead to an increased risk of infections, which might show as a fever, chills, sore throat, or mouth sores.

This drug might damage the kidneys. Your doctor or nurse will likely advise you to drink plenty of fluids and to urinate often before and after getting this drug, to help protect the kidneys. Tell your doctor or nurse if you start to pass less urine than is normal for you.

Possible Side Effects Of Radiation Treatment For Prostate Cancer

The radiation used to destroy cancer cells can also hurt normal cells in the nearby area. Side effects from radiation treatment are related to the area of the body being treated. Patients start to have side effects a few weeks into their treatment. While side effects may be unpleasant, there are treatments to help deal with them. Most side effects are temporary and slowly start to go away once treatment is done.

You will be seen by your radiation oncology providers often during treatment. These visits are a chance to ask questions and to talk about any side effects and how to best manage them. You can also call your providers to speak about any side effects.

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Comparison Of The Leading Techniques Of Rp And Ebrt: Rarp Versus Vmat

A retrospective study has recently been published in Radiotherapy & Oncology, which reports comparative outcomes of RARP and VMAT, as the leading respective techniques of RP and EBRT . RARP is a novel, gold standard, surgical procedure for localized PC using the da Vinci Surgical System and has been reported to reduce blood loss complications and positive surgical margin rates, resulting in improved safety and feasibility . VMAT represents a sophisticated EBRT technique based on rotational IMRT, which delivers a highly conformal beam from a rotating radiation source to the target while avoiding risky organs such as the rectum in a short time, by computerized optimization. VMAT has been reported to reduce complications and improve oncological outcomes .

Low Dose Rate Brachytherapy Implants

Prostate Cancer Radiation Seeds: After Surgery

The most common form of brachytherapy for prostate cancer, LDR involves surgically placing small radioactive pellets, about the size of a grain of rice, within the prostate. Once put in place, they remain there for life, but the radiation weakens over weeks or months, until it almost completely goes away.

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Who Is Eligible For Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy is widely used to treat men with all different stages of prostate cancer. Brachytherapy alone is used for men with early-stage and some intermediate risk prostate cancers and in combination with intensity modulated radiation therapy for men with larger prostate cancers. All men should be evaluated to see if it is a good treatment option for them. However, it may not be ideal for men who already have significant urinary issues such as frequency, urgency, or incomplete emptying, since those may be exacerbated by brachytherapy treatments. For patients with larger prostate glands, it can also be harder to accurately place the radiation.

According to Horwitz, there are some instances where traditional, noninvasive radiation therapies may be preferable.

The brachytherapy implant is a small surgical procedure, but it does involve anesthesia, he said. So for people who have a cardiac history, it may not be as safe for them. In addition, people using blood thinners may want to opt for a less invasive treatment.

But if a person is relatively healthy and it’s safe for them to have anesthesia, then they can do either.

How Prostate Cancer Staging And Risk Stratification Affect Treatment Options

Your treatment choices are determined by several factors, including your cancers stage, aggressiveness and assigned risk stratification . Your age and current general health condition may also affect your choices.

Prostate cancer staging

Prostate cancer staging determines whether the cancer is confined to the prostate gland or whether theres evidence of metastasis, meaning its spread to other areas of the body.

Tools and methods to determine staging may include the prostate-specific antigen test, the digital rectal examination , the Gleason score and the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM system, which provides information on the tumor, lymph node involvement and metastasis of a cancer. Imaging tests, such as a PET/CT scan, may also help determine your cancers stage.

The four stages of prostate cancer are subdivided into more precise categories, but we generally refer to three groups that indicate how far the cancer has spread:

Localized, meaning theres no indication that the cancer has spread beyond the prostate

Regional, meaning theres evidence of cancer cells in nearby lymph nodes or tissue

Distant, meaning theres evidence the cancer has spread to other organs or body parts farther from the prostate

Almost 90 percent of prostate cancers are diagnosed at the localized or regional stage. The five-year relative survival rate for men diagnosed with prostate cancer at these stages is nearly 100 percent.

Prostate cancer risk assessment

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