Sunday, March 3, 2024

Rare Form Of Breast Cancer

Is Lobular Carcinoma In Situ A Cancer

8-Year-Old Diagnosed with Rare Form of Breast Cancer

Lobular carcinoma in situ An LCIS is technically not considered cancer, but rather a change in the breast. In the breast are tens of thousands of tiny clusters of lobules to produce breast milk. Cells that resemble cancer cells may grow inside these lobules. LCIS tends to remain there and not spread.

Can Stage 4 Cancer Have No Symptoms

When people are diagnosed with cancer, most of them are diagnosed at an early stage. I was a rarity and was diagnosed at stage 4. Every cancer case is different, some people diagnosed at an early stage have obvious symptoms, some of us diagnosed at a late stage have no symptoms or very insignificant symptoms.

What Can I Do To Reduce My Risk

If several members of your family have had breast or ovarian cancer, or one of your family members has a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, share this information with your doctor. Your doctor may refer you for genetic counseling. In men, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can increase the risk of breast cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer.

If genetic testing shows that you have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation, your doctor will explain what you should do to find cancer early, if you get it.

All men can lower their risk by keeping a healthy weight and exercising regularly.

As a neurosurgeon, Don knew everything in life and in surgery is all risk versus benefit. After discovering his family history of breast cancer, he took responsibility for his own health by getting tested and later having an elective mastectomy.

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Can Breast Cancer Be Prevented

You may be able to help prevent breast cancer by making healthy lifestyle changes such as:

  • Staying at a healthy weight
  • Limiting alcohol use
  • Limiting your exposure to estrogen by
  • Breastfeeding your babies if you can
  • Limiting hormone therapy

If you are at high risk, your health care provider may suggest that you take certain medicines to lower the risk. Some women at very high risk may decide to get a mastectomy to prevent breast cancer.

It’s also important to get regular mammograms. They may be able to identify breast cancer in the early stages, when it is easier to treat.

NIH: National Cancer Institute

What Are The Treatments For Breast Cancer

The surprising symptom that can be an early sign you have breast cancer

Treatments for breast cancer include:

  • Surgery such as
  • A mastectomy, which removes the whole breast
  • A lumpectomy to remove the cancer and some normal tissue around it, but not the breast itself
  • Hormone therapy, which blocks cancer cells from getting the hormones they need to grow
  • Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances that attack specific cancer cells with less harm to normal cells
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    Pagets Disease Of The Breast Or Nipple

    Pagets disease of the breast or nipple is a rare skin cancer that appears on the nipple or areola. It generally affects the milk ducts first and then spreads to the areola or nipple. This cancer is problematic to diagnose because it presents symptoms such as redness, itchiness, and scaliness that often look similar to other skin abnormalities that are more common to see on the breast.

    What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Breast Cancer

    The signs and symptoms of breast cancer include:

    • A new lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the armpit
    • A change in the size or shape of the breast
    • A dimple or puckering in the skin of the breast. It may look like the skin of an orange.
    • A nipple turned inward into the breast
    • Nipple discharge other than breast milk. The discharge might happen suddenly, be bloody, or happen in only one breast.
    • Scaly, red, or swollen skin in the nipple area or the breast
    • Pain in any area of the breast

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    What Is Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer usually begins in the ducts that carry milk to the nipple, and can metastasize reach other parts of the body when the cancer cells get into the blood or lymph systems. Most of the time, cancer cells die at some point in the process of trying to spread. But, if conditions are favorable for the cancer cells, some of them are able to form new tumors in other parts of the body. Metastatic cancer cells can also remain inactive at a distant site for many years before they begin to grow again, if at all.

    Breast Or Nipple Pain

    Rare form of Breast Cancer used in plot for “Grey’s Anatomy”

    Breast cancer can cause changes in skin cells that lead to feelings of pain, tenderness, and discomfort in the breast. If a lump is present, it is not painful.

    Although breast cancer is often painless, it is important not to ignore any signs or symptoms that could be due to breast cancer.

    Some people

    may be a sign of breast cancer.

    Although changes in the size of the breast can be a symptom of any type of breast cancer, the National Cancer Institute states that a rapid increase in breast size could be an indication of inflammatory breast cancer. This is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer.

    If someone notices that either or both of their breasts have increased in size, they should consider contacting a doctor.

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    Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    Ductal carcinoma in situ is a very early form of breast cancer. As its name suggests, DCIS is noninvasive and confined to the milk ducts. Its usually detected during a mammogram and those with it dont typically have any symptoms, though occasionally patients may notice a breast lump or bloody discharge from the nipple, according to the Mayo Clinic.

    In some women, DCIS may never progress to invasive cancer, which has led some to question whether those with a low-risk form of the disease need to be treated at all, per Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. But currently, DCIS is treated with either a lumpectomy or mastectomy.

    Lymphoma Of The Breast

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the breast are rare and make up less than 1 in 100 breast cancers .

    The most common types are B-cell lymphomas such as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. A less common type is peripheral T-cell lymphoma .

    There is a rare type of NHL called breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma . This can develop in a small number of women who have breast implants. The first sign is usually a swelling around the breast implant. Very rarely, a lump may be felt close to the implant.

    For most people these symptoms happen many years after their implant surgery, but it could happen sooner. An in situ BIA-ALCL is when the lymphoma hasnt spread into other areas of the breast. The implant is removed and no further treatment is usually needed, but sometimes you may have drug treatment. The outlook is excellent for this type.

    In some women the lymphoma can show as a lump in the breast. This type is called infiltrative i-ALCL and it might also spread to the lymph nodes. After removing the implant, the treatment is usually chemotherapy or sometimes radiotherapy. The outlook is not so good for this type.

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    Types Of Invasive Breast Cancer

    Most breast cancers are invasive, meaning the cancer has spread from the original site to other areas, like nearby breast tissue, lymph nodes or elsewhere in the body. Invasive breast cancer cells break through normal breast tissue barriers and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymph nodes. The two most common types of invasive breast cancer are invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Invasive ductal carcinoma

    The most common type of breast canceraccounting for roughly 70 to 80 percent of all casesis called invasive ductal carcinoma . IDC is a cancer that starts in a milk duct and grows into other parts of the breast. With time, it may spread further, or metastasize, to other parts of the body.

    Invasive lobular carcinoma

    Invasive lobular carcinoma is the second most common type, accounting for roughly 5 to 10 percent of all breast cancers. ILC starts in lobules and then spreads into nearby breast tissue. Like IDC, it may metastasize. However, this cancer is harder to detect on mammograms and other exams than IDC. One in five women with ILC have both breasts affected.

    Inflammatory breast cancer

    Pagets disease of the breast

    Angiosarcoma of the breast

    Phyllodes tumors

    Other, even more rare, types of invasive breast cancer include adenoid cystic carcinoma, low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and tubular carcinoma.

    Where Do These Numbers Come From


    The American Cancer Society relies on information from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.

    The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for breast cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages . Instead, it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages:

    • Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside of the breast.
    • Regional: The cancer has spread outside the breast to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
    • Distant: The cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as the lungs, liver, or bones.

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    How Do Tamoxifen Raloxifene Anastrozole And Exemestane Reduce The Risk Of Breast Cancer

    If you are at increased risk for developing breast cancer, four medications tamoxifen , raloxifene , anastrozole , and exemestane may help reduce your risk of developing this disease. These medications act only to reduce the risk of a specific type of breast cancer called estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. This type of breast cancer accounts for about two-thirds of all breast cancers.

    Tamoxifen and raloxifene are in a class of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators . These drugs work by blocking the effects of estrogen in breast tissue by attaching to estrogen receptors in breast cells. Because SERMs bind to receptors, estrogen is blocked from binding. Estrogen is the fuel that makes most breast cancer cells grow. Blocking estrogen prevents estrogen from triggering the development of estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Anastrozole and exemestane are in a class of drugs called aromatase inhibitors . These drugs work by blocking the production of estrogen. Aromatase inhibitors do this by blocking the activity of an enzyme called aromatase, which is needed to make estrogen.

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    Male Breast Cancer Treatment

    Treatments for breast cancer in men are the same as for women and include:

    • Chemotherapy: Drugs to destroy cancer cells or slow their growth
    • Radiation therapy: High-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells and spare surrounding cells
    • Hormone therapy: Drugs to destroy cancer cells by eliminating the hormones that fuel them
    • Targeted therapy: Medications that interfere with molecules involved in cancer cell growth
    • Surgery: Removing cancer cells and surrounding cancer-free tissue to prevent regrowth
    • Clinical trials: Approved research studies that investigate new treatments and their effectiveness

    Learn more about breast cancer in men. If you are concerned about your risk for male breast cancer or have symptoms, reach out to your primary care provider.

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    What Increases Your Risk Of Breast Cancer

    Factors that can elevate risk breast cancer risk include:

    • A personal or family history of breast cancer, including DCIS and LCIS
    • Inherited genetic predispositions, most commonly with BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations
    • Elevated lifetime estrogen exposure, including:
    • Early onset of menstruation
    • Late-onset of menopause
    • Older age of first childbirth or never having given birth
    • Taking estrogen and progesterone after menopause
  • Having dense breast tissue
  • What Is The Prognosis Of Patients With Inflammatory Breast Cancer

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    The prognosis, or likely outcome, for a patient diagnosed with cancer is often viewed as the chance that the cancer will be treated successfully and that the patient will recover completely. Many factors can influence a cancer patients prognosis, including the type and location of the cancer, the stage of the disease, the patients age and overall general health, and the extent to which the patients disease responds to treatment.

    Because inflammatory breast cancer usually develops quickly and spreads aggressively to other parts of the body, women diagnosed with this disease, in general, do not survive as long as women diagnosed with other types of breast cancer.

    It is important to keep in mind, however, that survival statistics are based on large numbers of patients and that an individual womans prognosis could be better or worse, depending on her tumor characteristics and medical history. Women who have inflammatory breast cancer are encouraged to talk with their doctor about their prognosis, given their particular situation.

    Ongoing research, especially at the molecular level, will increase our understanding of how inflammatory breast cancer begins and progresses. This knowledge should enable the development of new treatments and more accurate prognoses for women diagnosed with this disease. It is important, therefore, that women who are diagnosed with inflammatory breast cancer talk with their doctor about the option of participating in a clinical trial.

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    What Is Invasive Lobular Carcinoma

    Invasive lobular carcinoma starts in the breasts lobules. These are small round sacs that make breast milk. This cancer spreads to nearby tissue. ILC is the second most common type of invasive breast cancer, after invasive ductal carcinoma. Out of every 100 cases of breast cancer, 10 to 15 are ILC.

    People who have ILC may notice a thick or full area that does not feel like the rest of the breast. ILC doesnt always form a lump.

    What Are The Different Types Of Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Breast cancer types are divided into two main categories:

  • Noninvasive breast cancer
  • Invasive breast cancer
  • Noninvasive breast cancer

    Noninvasive cancer forms within the milk ducts or lobules in the breast. Although healthy breast tissue is not yet affected, the cancer may progress at any time and immediate treatment is crucial.

    There are two main types of noninvasive breast cancer:

  • Ductal carcinoma in situ : Considered the most common, DCIS starts in the milk ducts of the breast but hasnt yet invaded the surrounding tissues. Patients with DCIS generally show no signs or symptoms, although a small number of patients may have a lump in the breast or discharge coming out of the nipples. This noninvasive breast cancer has the potential to develop into invasive breast cancer at any time.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ : An uncommon condition in which abnormal cells form in the lobules of the breast but havent yet invaded the wall of the lobules. As time passes, having LCIS increases the risk of developing invasive breast cancer.
  • Invasive breast cancer

    Invasive breast cancer is breast cancer that has spread outside the ducts and lobules into the surrounding tissues. Types of invasive breast cancer include:

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    Life Style And Dietary Cause

    Sedentary life style, high dietary intake of fat obesity particularly in postmenopausal women may cause breast cancer. The use of alcohol is also another one cause of breast cancer. The risk increases with the amount of alcohol consumed. Women who consume two to five alcoholic beverages per day have a risk about one and a half times that of nondrinkers for the development of breast cancer.

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    Basal Type Breast Cancer

    Chest Freckles Rare Inflammatory Breast Cancer Symptom

    Basal type breast cancer has particular genetic changes in the cells. The cells make large amounts of a protein called cytokeratin 5/6.

    Basal type breast cancers are often triple negative. This means that they don’t have many receptors for oestrogen, progesterone, or HER2. So, hormone therapies and targeted drugs don’t work for most basal type cancers.

    Doctors use other treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, instead.

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    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Of The Breast

    Less than 1 in 100 breast cancers are adenoid cystic cancer. This type of cancer is also sometimes called a cribriform cancer. It is a cancer type that is more often diagnosed in the salivary glands, but some develop in the breast tissue.

    It is generally seen in older people but has been seen in people as young as 25.

    Adenoid cystic breast cancer tends to be slow growing. Doctors usually recommend surgery. Most women dont need to have the whole breast removed . Instead, your doctor will just remove the area of the cancer. This operation is called breast conserving surgery.

    The cancer rarely spreads elsewhere in the body. So you don’t usually need to have your lymph nodes removed. The risk of this type of tumour coming back is low, so the outlook is good.

    What Is The Name Of The Tumor That Resembles A Part Of The Brain Called

    The tumor is soft and fleshy and resembles a part of the brain called the medulla, which is where it gets its name. Most people are diagnosed with this type of cancer in their 40s or 50s, but it can develop at any age. It is more common in women with a BRCA1 mutation. Luckily, although the cells appear aggressive, they tend to be slow-growing and resistant to spreading, making it easier to treat.

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