Sunday, March 3, 2024

Stage 2 Bladder Cancer Survival Rate

What Is Stage 2 Cancer

Grading/Staging of Bladder Cancer

Stage 2 cancers are typically larger than stage 1 cancers and/or have spread to nearby lymph nodes. Like stage 1 cancers, stage 2 cancers are typically treated with local therapies such as surgery or radiation therapy.

Stage 2 cancer is determined in the five most common cancers in the following way:

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Treating Metastatic Bladder Cancer

Treatment for metastatic bladder cancer is different for each person, depending on your specific situation. Your doctor and care team will discuss different options with you, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each type of treatment option.

The goals of most types of treatment are to slow down how fast the cancer cells are growing and to shrink the tumor as much as possible. Other important goals of treatment are to help people with bladder cancer live as long as possible and to make sure they have the best possible quality of life. Palliative care can also help relieve symptoms and treatment side effects.4

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Standard Treatment Options For Stage I Bladder Cancer

Patients with stage I bladder tumors are unlikely to die from bladder cancer, but the tendency for new tumor formation is high. In a series of patients with Ta or T1 tumors who were followed for a minimum of 20 years or until death, the risk of bladder recurrence after initial resection was 80%. Of greater concern than recurrence is the risk of progression to muscle-invasive, locally-advanced, or metastatic bladder cancer. While progression is rare for low-grade tumors, it is common among high-grade cancers.

One series of 125 patients with TaG3 cancers followed for 15 to 20 years reported that 39% progressed to more advanced stage disease, while 26% died of urothelial cancer. In comparison, among 23 patients with TaG1 tumors, none died and 5% progressed. Risk factors for recurrence and progression include the following:

  • High-grade disease.
  • Radical cystectomy .
  • TUR with fulguration followed by an immediate postoperative instillation of intravesical chemotherapy

    TUR and fulguration are the most common and conservative forms of management. Careful surveillance of subsequent bladder tumor progression is important. Because most bladder cancers recur after TUR, one immediate intravesical instillation of chemotherapy after TUR is widely used. Numerous randomized, controlled trials have evaluated this practice, and a meta-analysis of seven trials reported that a single intravesical treatment with chemotherapy reduced the odds of recurrence by 39% .

    TUR with fulguration

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    Stage Information For Bladder Cancer

    The clinical staging of carcinoma of the bladder is determined by the depth of invasion of the bladder wall by the tumor. This determination requires a cystoscopic examination that includes a biopsy and examination under anesthesia to assess the following:

    • Size and mobility of palpable masses.
    • Degree of induration of the bladder wall.
    • Presence of extravesical extension or invasion of adjacent organs.

    Clinical staging, even when computed tomographic and/or magnetic resonance imaging scans and other imaging modalities are used, often underestimates the extent of tumor, particularly in cancers that are less differentiated and more deeply invasive. CT imaging is the standard staging modality. A clinical benefit from obtaining MRI or positron emission tomography scans instead of CT imaging has not been demonstrated.

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    Survival Rates By Stage

    Papillary Bladder Cancer Survival Rates

    The numbers listed below are based upon countless people detected with bladder cancer from 1988 to 2001. These numbers originated from the National Cancer Institutes SEER database.

    • The 5-year relative survival rate for people with stage 0 bladder cancer has to do with 98%.
    • The 5-year relative survival rate for individuals with stage I bladder cancer has to do with 88%.
    • For stage II bladder cancer, the 5-year relative survival rate is about 63%.
    • The 5-year relative survival rate for stage III bladder cancer has to do with 46%.

    Bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is often hard to alleviate. Phase IV bladder cancer has a relative 5-year survival rate of about 15%. Still, there are typically treatment alternatives readily available for people with this phase of cancer.

    Remember, these survival rates are only approximates they cant predict exactly what will happen to any individual person. We comprehend that these data can be complicated and may lead you to have more concerns. Speak with your physician to much better comprehend your certain situation.

    Being diagnosed with bladder cancer can be overwhelming and scary, especially if its phase 4.

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    Understanding The Statistics: Cancer Survival

    It is important to remember that all cancer survival numbers are based on averages across huge numbers of people. These numbers cannot predict what will happen in your individual case.

    Survival rates will not tell you how long you will live after you have been diagnosed with bladder cancer. But, these numbers can give you an idea of how likely your treatment will be successful. Also, survival rates take into account your age at diagnosis but not whether you have other health conditions too.

    What Are The Risk Factors For Bladder Cancer

    Some factors increase the risk of bladder cancer:

    • Cigarette smoking is the biggest risk factor it more than doubles the risk. Pipe and cigar smoking and exposure to second-hand smoking may also increase ones risk.
    • Prior radiation exposure is the next most common risk factor .
    • Certain chemotherapy drugs also increase the risk of bladder cancer.
    • Environmental exposures increase the risk of bladder cancer. People who work with chemicals, such as aromatic amines are at risk. Extensive exposure to rubber, leather, some textiles, paint, and hairdressing supplies, typically related to occupational exposure, also appears to increase the risk.
    • Infection with a parasite known as Schistosoma haematobium, which is more common in developing countries and the Middle East.
    • People who have frequent infections of the bladder, bladder stones, or other diseases of the urinary tract, or who have chronic need for a catheter in the bladder, may be at higher risk of squamous cell carcinoma.
    • Patients with a previous bladder cancer are at increased risk to form new or recurrent bladder tumors.

    Other risk factors include diets high in fried meats and animal fats, and older age. In addition, men have a three-fold higher risk than women.

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    What Is The First Sign Of Bladder Cancer

    Blood in the urine, referred to as hematuria, is usually the first sign of bladder cancer. This is because early bladder cancer commonly causes bleeding without associated pain or other symptoms.

    • Depending on the amount of blood present, urine may appear pink, red, or brownish in color.
    • Blood may not be present all the time there may be relatively long periods of clear urine .

    If you have noticed blood in your urine it is important to speak to your doctor as soon as possible.

    Other early symptoms of bladder cancer that may be experienced are urinary irritation or changes in bladder habits, such as increased urination frequency and/or urgency, pain or a burning sensation during urination, or difficulty passing urine.

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    Risk Factors Of Prostate Cancer

    Bladder Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Age is the most significant risk factor for prostate cancer. Your risk increases as you get older. Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer are over 50 years of age. If you are over the age of 50, talk to your GP about the PSA blood test which can indicate if your prostate is healthy or not.

    • A family history of cancer

    A family history means that you have someone in your family who has cancer. Generally, if you have a father or brother diagnosed with prostate cancer, you are 2 to 3 times more likely to get prostate cancer yourself, compared to the average man.

    The risk is much higher for men with several affected relatives, particularly if their relatives were young when the cancer was found. It is always worth knowing about your family history.

    Several inherited gene changes seem to raise prostate cancer risk, but they probably account for only a small percentage of cases overall. For example, inherited mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes raise the risk of breast and ovarian cancers in some families. Mutations in these genes may also increase prostate cancer risk in some men.

    Prostate cancer is more common in black Caribbean and black African men than in white or Asian men. Asian men have half the risk of white men.

    • A previous cancer

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    Low Grade And High Grade Bladder Cancer

    Bladder cancer starts in the lining of the bladder in about 90 percent of people diagnosed with this cancer. Bladder cancer is called low grade or high grade.

    • Low-grade bladder cancer means the cancer has not invaded the muscles around the bladder . People rarely die from this type of bladder cancer, it often recurs after treatment.
    • High-grade bladder cancer also often recurs and has a higher chance of spreading to other parts of the body. Almost all deaths from bladder cancer result this type so it is treated more aggressively.

    Does Bladder Cancer Always Come Back

    Bladder cancer cells can recur in the bladder or they can recur in other parts of the body. Some people who are treated for bladder cancer never have a recurrence. Although recurrence is not uncommon among people who are treated for bladder cancer, in many cases the recurrence can be treated effectively.

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    Survival Rates For Prostate Cancer

    Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. These rates cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.

    Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Talk with your doctor about how these numbers may apply to you, as he or she is familiar with your situation.

    What Are The Layers Of The Bladder

    High frequency of bladder cancer after nephroureterectomy: justificati ...

    The bladder consists of three layers of tissue. The innermost layer of the bladder, which comes in contact with the urine stored inside the bladder, is called the mucosa and consists of several layers of specialized cells called transitional cells, which are almost exclusively found in the urinary system of the body. These same cells also form the inner lining of the ureters, kidneys, and a part of the urethra. These cells form a waterproof lining within these organs to prevent the urine from going into the deeper tissue layers. These cells are also termed urothelial cells, and the mucosa is termed the urothelium.

    The middle layer is a thin lining known as the lamina propria and forms the boundary between the inner mucosa and the outer muscular layer. This layer has a network of blood vessels and nerves and is an important landmark in terms of the staging of bladder cancer .

    The outer layer of the bladder comprises of the detrusor muscle. This is the thickest layer of the bladder wall. Its main function is to relax slowly as the bladder fills up to provide low-pressure urine storage and then to contract to compress the bladder and expel the urine out during the act of passing urine. Outside these three layers is a variable amount of fat that lines and protects the bladder like a soft cushion and separates it from the surrounding organs such as the rectum and the muscles and bones of the pelvis.

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    Treatment Of Stage I Bladder Cancer

    For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

    Treatment of stage I bladder cancer may include the following:

  • Radical cystectomy.
  • A clinical trial of a new treatment.
  • Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

    Can You Have A Second Turbt

    Certain people may be able to have a second transurethral resection , followed by radiation and chemotherapy. While this lets patients keep their bladder, its not clear if the outcomes are as good as they are after cystectomy, so not all doctors agree with this approach. If this treatment is used, frequent and careful follow-up exams are needed. Some experts recommend a repeat cystoscopy and biopsy be done during the chemo and radiation treatment. If cancer is still found in the biopsy sample, a cystectomy will likely be needed.

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    Radiotherapy With A Radiosensitiser

    Radiotherapy is given by a machine that beams the radiation at the bladder . Sessions are usually given on a daily basis for 5 days a week over the course of 4 to 7 weeks. Each session lasts for about 10 to 15 minutes.

    A medicine called a radiosensitiser should also be given alongside radiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. This medicine affects the cells of a tumour, to enhance the effect of radiotherapy. It has a much smaller effect on normal tissue.

    As well as destroying cancerous cells, radiotherapy can also damage healthy cells, which means it can cause a number of side effects. These include:

    • erectile dysfunction
    • difficulty passing urine

    Most of these side effects should pass a few weeks after your treatment finishes, although there’s a small chance they’ll be permanent.

    Having radiotherapy directed at your pelvis usually means you’ll be infertile .

    After having radiotherapy for bladder cancer, you should be offered follow-up appointments every 3 months for the first 2 years, then every 6 months for the next 2 years, and every year after that. At these appointments, your bladder will be checked using a cystoscopy.

    You may also be offered CT scans of your chest, abdomen and pelvis after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. A CT scan of your urinary tract may be offered every year for 5 years.

    Whats The Treatment For Stage 2 Bladder Cancer

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    Your treatment options will depend on a number of factors, such as your age and general health. Youll probably need a combination of treatments. Your doctor will monitor your progress and adjust therapy as needed. You may also need treatments to help control symptoms of cancer and side effects of treatment.

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    What Impacts The Bladder Cancer Survival Rate

    Survival rates depend on many factors, including the type and stage of bladder cancer that is diagnosed. According to the ACS, the five-year survival rate of people with bladder cancer that has not spread beyond the inner layer of the bladder wall is 96%. This is called non-muscle invasive bladder cancer . More than half of people are diagnosed at this stage.

    If a tumor is invasive but has not yet spread outside the bladder, the five-year survival rate is 69%. Approximately 33% of bladders cancers are diagnosed at this stage. If the cancer extends through the bladder to the surrounding tissue or has spread to nearby lymph nodes or organs, the five-year survival rate is 37%. If the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body, the five-year survival rate is 6%. About 4% of people are diagnosed at this stage.

    It is important to remember that statistics about the five-year survival rates for people with bladder cancer are estimates only and come from annual data based on the number of people with this cancer. A number of new and promising bladder cancer treatments that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the last five years might not be reflected in a five-year survival rate statistic.

    Just like no single treatment is appropriate for all bladder cancer patients, there is not one statistic that applies to everyone either. Talk with your doctor about your own individual situation to gain the best understanding you can.

    Where Do These Numbers Come From

    The American Cancer Society relies on information from the SEER* database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.

    The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages . Instead, it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages:

    • Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside of the bladder.
    • Regional: The cancer has spread from the bladder to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
    • Distant: The cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as the lungs, liver or bones.

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    What Is The Procedure To Remove A Tumor From The Bladder

    In some cases,transurethral resection may be all that is needed. This procedure is usually done to assess the extent of the cancer before treatment. A thin, lighted tube called a cystoscope is inserted into your bladder through the urethra so your doctor can examine the bladder. If the tumor is small and hasnt reached too far into the bladder wall, your doctor may be able to remove the entire tumor at the same time.

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