What Is Stage 2 Cervical Cancer
Stage 2 cervical cancer occurs when cancer has spread from the cervix and uterus. In stage 2, cancer cells:
- Grow beyond the cervix and uterus, but not to the pelvic or vaginal walls
- Have not spread to nearby lymph nodes
- Have not spread to distant sites
Stage 2 is split into A and B, but 2A is additionally divided.
- 2A: Cancer has grown beyond the cervix and uterus, but not into the parametrium.
- 2A1: The cancer is smaller than 4 cm .
- 2A2: The cancer is larger than 4 cm.
- 2B: The cancer extends beyond the cervix and uterus and has spread into the parametrium.
Treatment Of Stages I
Patients diagnosed with Stage I uterine cancer have cancer that has not spread outside the uterus. Stage IA is cancer confined to the inner layer of cells of the uterus . Stage IB is cancer that invades less than one half of the muscle wall of the uterus. Stage IC is cancer that invades more than one half of the muscle wall of the uterus.
Stage II uterine cancer involves the main body of the uterus and the cervix. Stage IIA cancer involves the uterus and only the surface lining of the cervix. Stage IIB cancer involves the uterus and extends into deep layers of the cervix.
Stage I and II uterine cancers are curable with surgery alone for the majority of patients. Optimal treatment may require additional therapeutic approaches in selected situations. Thus, it is important for patients to be treated at a medical center that can offer multi-modality treatment from gynecologic oncologists and radiation oncologists.
What Is Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer occurs when previously healthy cells in the cervix become abnormal. As they grow, they crowd healthy cells. If the abnormal cells spread to other areas of the body, it makes it harder for the body to function correctly.
Cervical cancer used to be one of the most common causes of cancer death for American women. Fortunately, because of the Pap test, rates of cervical cancer have dropped dramatically. During a Pap test, your doctor collects cervical cells for microscopic examination to find precancerous or cancerous cells. A Pap test is typically done every 3 to 5 years in your healthcare providers office unless you are at an increased risk for cervical cancer. It is crucial to catch cancer early, and routine cervical cancer screening allows most women to do that.
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Uterine Cancer Stages Symptoms And Treatments
Uterine cancer stages are divided into 4 main stages. Each stage also has subdivided types. What you will learn here are general symptoms of uterine cancer as well as treatments. Having knowledge about this cancer can give you tips on how to prevent it.
Stage 1 uterine cancer and stage 2 uterine cancer are grouped into three subtypes.
Uterine Cancer Stages
These are stage 1A, stage 1B and stage 1C for stage 1 and stage 2A, stage 2B and stage 2C. Stage 1 is obviously an early stage wherein the cancer has only spread limitedly into the wall of the uterus. This means that cancer has not yet spread to any other parts of the body. On the other hand, uterine cancer stages 2 has somewhat grown into the cervix area of the uterus. At these uterine cancer stages prognosis is still improved. The survival chance of a stage 1 or stage 2 cancer patient is very high. Treating patients of these stages is effective through proper methods of cures.
Regardless of the uterine cancer stages symptoms are likely similar. There will be a pain feeling in the pelvic region and abdomen, pain during urination and pain sensation during sexual intercourse. Vaginal bleeding and discharge also occur. These are signs that are mostly present during the later uterine cancer stages. Early stages usually do not have symptoms at all. Detecting the symptoms of uterine cancer depends on the stage a patient has.
Nomograms For Predicting Cancer
- 1Department of General Practice, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
- 2Health Development Research Centre of Pudong Institute for Health Development, Pudong, China
- 3Department of Gynecology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Beijing, China
Background: This study aimed to develop a detailed survival prognostication tool based on various clinical indicators of patients because of the lack of comprehensive prognostic tool.
Methods: Data regarding 63,729 patients with endometrial carcinoma were extracted from the SEER database between 1988 and 2015. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to screen for meaningful independent prognostic factors. These factors were used to construct a nomogram model, a survival prognostication tool for 3- and 5-year tumor-specific survival and overall survival among patients with endometrial carcinoma.
Results: A total of 63,729 patients were randomly assigned to the training group and the test group . Age, race, year of diagnosis, histologic grade, clinical stage, and tumor size were assessed as predictors of cancer-specific survival and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify independent prognostic factors . Finally, a nomogram was constructed, the predicted C-indices for cancer-specific survival and overall survival training groups were 0.859 and 0.782 .
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Survival Rate For Uterine Cancer
Cancer survival rates are usually discussed in terms of 5-year relative survival, which refers to the proportion of patients still alive 5 years after diagnosis. Keep in mind that statistics like these are based on large groups of people and cannot predict what might happen with an individual patient.
In the United States, an estimated 65,620 women will be diagnosed with uterine or endometrial cancer this year. About 12,500 women die from uterine cancer each year.
Overall, the five-year survival rate for women with uterine cancer is 85%, however, statistics show marked differences, called cancer health disparities, between white women and black women. Among white women, the five-year survival is 84%, compared to 62% for black women. Black women are less likely to have their disease diagnosed at an early stage, and they are more likely to develop more aggressive and difficult to treat cancer types.
The causes of disparities such as these are complex and are the focus of ongoing research across the country, including here at Roswell Park.
Survival is largely dependent on your cancers stage at the time of diagnosis, and national data shows these survival rates for uterine cancer:
|State of disease at diagnosis
|Five-year survival rate
|Localized disease where the cancer was confined to the original location
How Curable Is Uterine Cancer
While a diagnosis of uterine cancer can be scary, it is important to know that its most common formendometrial canceris highly curable. Uterine cancer is a blanket term for a group of cancers that can develop inside a womans uterus.
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What Is Stage 4 Cervical Cancer
Stage 4 cervical cancer is cancer that has grown into other organs or has metastasized. Stage 4 cervical cancer has grown into the bladder, rectum or distant organs . Stage 4 cervical cancer is divided into A and B.
- 4A: The cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum or outside of the pelvis.
- 4B: The cancer has metastasized to organs or lymph nodes outside the pelvic area.
Patient Enrollment And Variables
All patients’ information was obtained from the SEER database using the SEER*Stat software .
The time limit for data collection was from 1988 to 2015. The inclusion criteria were as follows: diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma and known cause of death and survival duration after diagnosis.
The exclusion criteria were as follows: unknown use of radiotherapy or chemotherapy, unknown diagnostic method, unknown histology grade classification, unknown clinical stage, unknown exact tumor size, unknown metastasis information, and unknown race information of patient.
Figure 1. The flow chart of data process.
Figure 2. Identification of optimal cut-off values of age , tumor size , and year of diagnosis via X-tile software analysis. Optimal cut-off values of age were identified as 54, 61 and 69-years based on overall survival. Optimal cut-off values of tumor size were identified as 29 mm and 57 mm based on overall survival. Optimal cut-off values of year of diagnosis were identified as 2001 and 2006 based on overall survival.
According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 63,729 patients with endometrial carcinoma were finally enrolled in our study, all of whom were randomly divided into the training cohort and test cohort in the ratio 7:3.
The endpoints of our study included CSS and OS however, the 3- and 5-year survival of both endpoints were used as well.
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Uterine Cancer Survival Rate
As with most cancers, the uterine cancer survival rate depends on the stage of the cancer when it is diagnosed. In general, the earlier the stage at diagnosis, the better the chances are of beating the disease. Keep in mind, the survival rate is a statistic based on data from past cases of uterine cancer. It does not reflect current diagnoses and current treatments. It also does not specify whether the patient was totally cancer free after treatment or received long-term treatment to keep the cancer from progressing.
Cancer specialists look at five-year survival rates to help give their patients a prognosis. The higher the percentage, the better: A 70% survival rate, for example means 70% of women diagnosed with uterine cancer live at least five years after the time they were diagnosed.
The overall survival rate for uterine cancer is 65% after five years. That means that five years after diagnosis, 65% of the women are alive. Uterine cancer diagnosed in stage I or II has a five-year survival rate of 70 to 95%. Women diagnosed with stage III or IV uterine cancer have between 10% and 60% five-year survival rate. These women have uterine cancer with metastasismeaning the cancer has spread. The survival rate is low because cancer that has spread to other organs is more difficult to treat than cancer that remains in the uterus.
Types Of Cervical Cancer
There are several different types of cervical cancer, but the most common types include:
- Squamous cell cancer that affects the flat cells that cover the outside of the cervix. Squamous cell cancer affects 70-80% of those who are diagnosed.
- Adenocarcinoma is the second most likely form of cervical cancer and starts in the glands that produce mucus. The cervix has mucous producing cells along the inside of the passage that runs to the uterus. While only 20% of cervical cancers are adenocarcinoma-based, this form has become more common in recent years.
- Adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare tumor, affecting about 5-6%. Cancer treatment for adenosquamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell cancer are the same.
- Small cell cancer is rare and proliferates. Other types of cervical cancer, like lymphomas and sarcomas, rarely occur. These types, combined with small cell cancer, are treated differently.
Cervical cancer cells are classified according to the degree of abnormality of the cells under a microscope. Cells are graded from 1 to 3. Grade 1 looks the most like normal cells, while 3 looks very abnormal.
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Uterine Cancer: Survival Rates And Prognosis
It is a life-changing moment when youre told you have cancer. Many questions run through your mind, including what type of treatment is available and what your prognosis is. While only your doctor can tell you about your specific situation, this article discusses average uterine cancer survival rates and prognosis. The details here will give you the information you need to ask your own doctor questions about your treatment.
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If you have been diagnosed with uterine cancer, your doctors next step is to stage your cancer.
This process tells your care team whether your cancer has spread within your uterus or to another part of your body. Armed with this information, your doctors can work with you to create the best possible treatment plan.
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What Makes Yale Medicine’s Approach To Uterine Cancer Stand Out
“At Yale, we can draw on our expertise, especially in minimally invasive surgery,” Dr. Huang says. “And for the more aggressive types of cancer that don’t respond to surgery alone, there is personalized medicine, which looks at testing the tumor and targeting abnormalities of the tumor that might make therapies more effective. There is also access to clinical trials here.”
What Determines Cancer Stage
A hysterectomy to remove your uterus is usually the first line of treatment and the best way to determine the stage of your cancer. Doctors can examine tissue from the uterus under a microscope to identify cancer cells. They also can tell whether cancer cells look similar to healthy cells and are slow-growing, low-grade tumors or if they look radically different, pointing to high-grade tumors that may spread quickly.
Other tests that may help with staging include a pelvic exam, Pap test, X-ray, CT scan, MRI and/or PET scan.
Cancer specialists use one of two similar systems for staging cancer. The FIGO system of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and the TNM staging system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer both classify cancer based on:
- The extent of the tumor
- Whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes
- Whether the cancer has spread to other sites in the body
Where Do These Numbers Come From
The American Cancer Society relies on information from the SEER* database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.
The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for endometrial cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by FIGO or AJCC TNM stages . Instead, it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages:
- Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside of the uterus.
- Regional: The cancer has spread from the uterus to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
- Distant: The cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as the lungs, liver or bones.
Understanding The Stages Of Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is one of the most common forms of gynecologic cancers, with 6 in 1,000 women receiving a cervical cancer diagnosis at some point in their lifetime. In 2020, American Cancer Societys estimates there were an estimated 14,000 new cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in the United States.
With regular gynecologic screenings, your doctor may be able to identify cervical cancer earlier. The earlier cervical cancer is diagnosed the greater your chances for recovering from the disease.
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Findings Consistent With Prior Literature
Consistent with previous literature, and similar to findings in other large cohort studies, we found that particular risk factors influence type 1 vs. 2 disease . Of these, obesity is unique as a modifiable risk factor that is increasing in prevalence. In our cohort, BMI is 3 kg/m2 higher in the type 1 cancer patients vs. type 2 cancer patients . This correlates with a prospective study of 1 million women in Norway where BMI > 30 had a relative risk of 2.70 for type 1 and 2.06 for type 2 endometrial cancer . Importantly, the risk associated with obesity is not isolated to BMI at the time of diagnosis. In fact, childhood obesity in girls as young as 7 has been linked to development of endometrial cancer . Mechanistically, obesity is one of the most correlated risk factors for type 1 endometrial cancer because of the clear relationship with increased estrogen exposure that leads to development of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia and subsequent development of a low-grade malignancy. Further, while higher BMI is associated with type 1 cancer, it is also important to note that even in the type 2 patients, the average BMI is also obese, at 32 kg/m2, suggesting that obesity alone is not enough to predict development of type 1 vs. 2 cancer.
Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation For Stage I And Stage Ii Endometrial Cancer
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Are Endometrial Cancer And Uterine Cancer The Same
Uterine cancer can refer to either endometrial cancer, uterine sarcoma or other rare forms of cancer that can arise in your uterus. But people often treat the terms endometrial cancer and uterine cancer the same. Thats because endometrial cancers are much more common than other cancers that can form in your uterus.
What Is Stage 1 Cervical Cancer
Stage 1 cervical cancer is the most local stage of cervical cancer. In stage 1, cancer cells:
- Grow from the surface of the cervix into deeper tissues of the cervix.
- Have not spread to nearby lymph nodes
- Have not spread to distant sites
Stage 1 is split into A and B, which are further divided.
- 1A: Cancer is microscopic.
- 1A1: The area of cancer is less than 3 mm deep.
- 1A2: The area of cancer is between 3-5 mm deep.
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