Sunday, February 18, 2024

Stage 4 Ovarian Cancer What To Expect

When To Stop Treatment

Understanding Ovarian Cancer Stages and Symptoms

While we have better treatments than in the past, and sometimes can even treat metastases, we know that many people with stage 4 colon cancer will reach a time at which the risks and side effects of treatment outweigh the benefits.

The advent of new treatments is a double-edged sword. These newer treatments can extend life and provide options not available just a few short years ago.

In the past, we often simply ran out of treatments to offer, but today we have reached a point in which the choice to discontinue treatments often needs to be an active decision. If you are at this point in your journey, make sure to ask a lot of questions, and carefully contemplate the answers.

In addition to having to make decisions about when to stop treatment, people have to learn about and consider taking part in clinical trialssome of which have been changing the outlook for stage 4 colon cancer considerably. It’s important to learn all you can about your cancer.

Hospice And Palliative Care

A lot of people are worried about the idea of a hospice and think theyre only for people at the very end of life. But they offer a range of support services for all stages of cancer both within and beyond the hospice building. Many people are admitted to hospices for one to two weeks to get more intensive symptom control before returning home again.

Hospice Care For Advanced Ovarian Cancer

If treatment is no longer an option, consider hospice care. Whether you get this care at home or at a facility, the hospice team will provide social, emotional, and spiritual support to you and your family during the final stages of your illness.

Hospice nurses make regular visits to your home to help monitor your care and help guide your primary caregiver. Theyâre often available by phone 24/7 to answer any questions or concerns.

Show Sources

American Cancer Society: âSurvival Rates for Ovarian Cancer,â âOvarian Cancer Stages,â âTreatment of Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancers, by Stage,â âComplementary and Integrated Methods,â âWhat Are Complementary and Integrative Methods?â âHow and Where Is Hospice Care Provided and How Is It Paid For?â âACS Patient Programs and Services.â

Cancer Research UK: âCoping if your ovarian cancer can’t be cured.â

Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology: âCan advanced-stage ovarian cancer be cured?â

Journal of Womenâs Health: âIndividual, Social, and Societal Correlates of Health-Related Quality of Life Among African American Survivors of Ovarian Cancer: Results from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study.â

National Organization for Rare Disorders: âOvarian Cancer.â

Cancer Medicine: âMental health disorders among ovarian cancer survivors in a population-based cohort.â

Penn Medicine Abramson Cancer Center: âSelf Care During Cancer.â

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Possible Changes In Consciousness

  • More sleeping during the day
  • Hard to wake or rouse from sleep
  • Confusion about time, place, or people
  • Restless, might pick or pull at bed linen
  • May talk about things unrelated to the events or people present
  • May have more anxiety, restlessness, fear, and loneliness at night
  • After a period of sleepiness and confusion, may have a short time when they are mentally clear before going back into semi-consciousness

Recurrent Or Persistent Ovarian Cancer

Stage 4 Ovarian Cancer

Cancer is called recurrent when it come backs after treatment. Recurrence can be local or distant .Persistent tumors are those that never went away completely after treatment. Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer often comes back months or years after the initial treatment.

Sometimes, more surgery is recommended. Most women with recurrent or persistent ovarian cancer are treated with some form of chemo. Which chemo drugs are used depends on what was used the first time and how well it worked . The longer it takes for the cancer to come back after treatment, the better the chance that additional chemo will work. If it has been at least 6 months since any chemo, carboplatin and paclitaxel are often used . Giving carboplatin with another drug is also an option.

If the cancer comes back in less than 6 months , different chemo drugs usually will be tried. There are many different chemo drugs that can be used to treat ovarian cancer, so some women may receive several different chemo regimens over several years.

Treatment with targeted drugs might also be helpful. For example, bevacizumab may be given with chemo. A PARP inhibitor drug such as olaparib , rucaparib , or niraparib may also be an option at some point. In addition, some women benefit from hormonal treatment with drugs like anastrozole, letrozole, or tamoxifen. Someone who didn’t initially receive chemo can be treated with the same drugs that are used for newly diagnosed cancer usually carboplatin and paclitaxel.

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Ups Downs And Plateaus

Researchers used the National Cancer Institutes cancer registries, known as Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results, or SEER, to examine the medical histories of close to 8,000 people who died between 2007 and 2016. All were over the age of 66 and on Medicare, and ovarian cancer was their only cancer diagnosis.

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The research team found that some end-of-life measures are trending in a positive direction: Hospice enrollment has gone up over time, and the proportion of people with ovarian cancer who undergo invasive procedures, such as surgery that requires anesthesia, has decreased.

Yet the number of months they spend in hospice as well as the proportion receiving chemotherapy in their last two weeks of life did not change significantly from 2007 to 2016 .

And the overall increase in emergency department visits and ICU stays, plus the notable disparities in certain end-of-life measures for Black people, are disappointing, says Mullins, whos also a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center and the Center for Improving Patient and Population Health at the University of Michigan School of Nursing.

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Mullins says further research is needed to explore why aggressive end-of-life care persists for people with ovarian cancer. Explanations could include:

What Is The Prognosis For Metastatic Ovarian Cancer

Metastatic ovarian cancer has a five-year survival rate of approximately 18 percent. However, its important to remember that cancer survival rates are based on a large group of people and arent predictive of what will happen in a particular persons case. For example, when looking at ovarian cancer as a whole, the five-year survival rate is approximately 48 percent. Whats more, patients who are younger than 65 years of age at the time of diagnosis fare better than older women. Other factors that can affect a patients prognosis include:

  • The overall health of the patient
  • How well the tumor is responding to treatment
  • The grade of the cancer
  • The type of tumorovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian stromal tumors have a higher survival rate than epithelial ovarian cancer

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Should You Get Treatment For Advanced Ovarian Cancer

Having stage IV ovarian cancer doesnât necessarily mean you should give up on treatment. Treatment can often help you feel better and possibly live longer.

Treatment for this stage of ovarian cancer may include some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and the targeted medication bevacizumab . You may also be a candidate for clinical trials, which let you contribute to research while trying a new treatment or combination of treatments.

While itâs not common, itâs possible in some cases to cure ovarian cancer even in its advanced stages. Some 20% of those with late-stage ovarian cancer survive more than 12 years after treatment. In medical terms, theyâre considered cured. Your doctor will help you determine whether continuing treatment makes sense for you.

Even when a cure isnât necessarily the goal, these treatments and others, such as pain medication, can be used as palliative care to relieve symptoms like pain, fatigue, and digestive issues.

Complementary and integrative care may help you manage the symptoms of your cancer as well as side effects of treatment. They can play a role in improving your overall well-being and quality of life. These may include:

  • Acupuncture
  • Yoga
  • Massage
  • Reflexology, a type of massage in which a therapist applies gentle pressure to certain spots on your body

Ask your doctor what complementary treatments you should consider, and which ones to avoid.

Treatments For Stage 4 Cancer

Meet Tara: Living with Stage 4 Ovarian Cancer

If you are living with stage 4 ovarian cancer, you may be feeling overwhelmed and scared. But dont worry there is help available.

Many people find it helpful to talk about their cancer experience with others. Talking can help to make sense of the situation and can provide comfort and support.

There are many different treatments for stage 4 ovarian cancer, and each persons treatment will depend on their individual circumstances and health condition.

Some common treatments for stage 4 ovarian cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. Many people also choose to combine different types of treatments in order to improve their chances of survival.

It is important to know what options are available to you and to speak with your healthcare providers about your treatment plan. Together, we can work to make sure that you have the best possible chance of beating ovarian cancer.

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Understanding What Is Being Said

You might hear lots of terms and words being used. These might mean different things to different people. Many of the words used aren’t ones that we hear in everyday conversation and it may feel uncomfortable to read them. Understanding these can make it easier to manage the more difficult conversations. It’s also important to understand the words the team looking after you use. If you aren’t sure, or don’t understand, ask.

Incurable means that the cancer isnt at a stage where a cure is now possible. There may still be treatments to help control the disease, slow it down or reduce the impact it has on you physically. You may experience some uncomfortable symptoms and side effects, which you should discuss with your medical team.

Palliative care and hospice care can be worrying to hear but they simply mean the total care of someone living with an incurable illness. They aim to maintain and improve your quality of life and offer support to you physically, emotionally, spiritually and socially.

You may hear the term end of life. This is often used to describe when its believed someone may have a year or less left to live. Although it can sound frightening the main reason for using this term is to ensure people with incurable cancer can be helped to live well. It also means that the support you need can be discussed, planned and prioritised.

How Do I Know If My Ovarian Cancer Has Spread

Early symptoms of ovarian cancer may include persistent bloating, abdominal distention or discomfort, trouble eating and urinary urgency. However, not all women with ovarian cancer will experience symptoms in its early stages. Additionally, these symptoms are also associated with many other, more common conditions, so the presence of one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean you have ovarian cancer.

When ovarian cancer reaches an advanced stage and spreads to other areas of the body, symptoms are much more likely to occur. Additional symptoms at this stage may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Back pain
  • Abdominal swelling with weight loss

If you are experiencing any symptoms associated with ovarian cancer, it is important to consult with your gynecologic oncologist to receive an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

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Factors That Affect The Outlook Of The Disease

If youve received a diagnosis of stage 4 lung cancer, many factors will affect your outlook, including:

  • Overall health. Commonly, if youre healthy when you receive your diagnosis, its an indication that you might have a better ability to tolerate life-extending treatments.
  • Age. Although data regarding the outcomes of older people with lung cancer is limited, a small

Often at this stage, your healthcare team is focused on palliative care as opposed to curative care.

Late stage 4a lung cancer can cause symptoms such as:

Late stage 4b lung cancer that has spread to other organs may also cause the following symptoms:

  • bone pain or fractures if its spread to your bones
  • headaches, vision issues, or seizures if its spread to your brain
  • nausea, bloating, or jaundice if its spread to your liver

As a caregiver, you can expect to see your loved one experiencing many of the symptoms and changes listed above, from reduced appetite to difficulty breathing to emotional changes.

Your loved one might also experience spiritual changes, whether theyre religious or not. The NCI recommends that caregivers support and respect loved ones who depend on spirituality to help them cope with cancer.

The goal is to deliver person-centered, compassionate care that delivers improved quality of life along with the best possible health outcomes.

Physical signs and symptoms of burnout can include:

  • body aches and pains
  • irritability
  • lack of energy

What Happens In Stage Iv Ovarian Cancer

Four Stages Of Ovarian Cancer Dark Blue Scheme Stock Vector ...

In stage IV ovarian cancer, the cancer has spread from the ovaries to more distant organs. The subtypes of this stage are:

  • Stage IVA: This is when the cancer has spread to the sheets of tissue that line the lungs. There is no spread to other organs, such as the liver, spleen, intestine or lymph nodes outside the abdomen. Stage IVA is usually diagnosed when cancer cells cause fluid to build up between the two sheets of tissue.
  • Stage IVB: This is when the cancer has spread to organs or lymph nodes outside the abdomen, which may include the liver or spleen.

Stage IV ovarian cancer is graded in addition to being staged, to show how active it is and how quickly or slowly it grows. Stage IV cancers may be graded if they are treated with surgery. The grades are as follows:

  • Grade I : When seen under a microscope, the cancerous cells are well-differentiated from normal cells. They look darker, with a prominent cell nucleus.
  • Grade II : Cells in this grade look more abnormal and are expected to grow slightly faster. They have abnormal cell membranes.
  • Grade III : Cells in this grade cannot be differentiated into individual cells and are most aggressive.

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Seek Care From A Gynecologic Oncologist

Perhaps the single most important thing you can do is seek care at a cancer center where providers have experience treating ovarian cancer. These centers, often referred to as high-volume centers because they treat many patients with the disease, are staffed with physicians who have extensive experience in treating ovarian cancer and provide the expertise you need.

High-volume hospitals and high volume surgeons are more likely to practice and adhere to National Comprehensive Cancer Network Ovarian Cancer Treatment Guidelines improved survival rates have been associated with patients treated according to NCCN guidelines.

Seeking care with a high-volume provider will also help ensure that you receive an accurate diagnosis, which is incredibly important. In some cases, advanced cancers of the gastrointestinal tract can mimic ovarian cancer, so receiving an accurate diagnosis that will lead to the most appropriate treatment is key.

A gynecologic oncologist is the only specialist/subspecialist trained to diagnose and treat patients with ovarian cancer.

Survival With Stage 4 Colon Cancer

Predictions about survival with stage 4 colon cancer are based on statistics, and people are not numbers. In addition, survival statistics are, by definition, always a few years old.

The 5-year survival rate for a disease will give you an estimate of how long someone may have lived who was diagnosed five years ago. How someone does today with colon cancer may be very different than how someone may have done even just five years ago.

With recent advances in cancer treatment, and many new cancer drugs, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapy being studied in clinical trials, these numbers are expected to change.

It’s important to understand this changing course of cancer medicine when you make your decisions. If you talk to someone, perhaps a neighbor or another family member, who dealt with colon cancer in the past, the approach to treatment may be very different now.

When people comment on others who have had the diseasewhich will almost certainly occuryou may want to gently remind them that treatments are changing. Better treatments are available for colon cancer than we had even two years ago, and long-term survival rateseven with stage 4 disease are improving.

There are more people living longer, even disease-free, with stage 4 colon cancer than ever before. If you have colon cancer with liver metastases that are treatable, there are many people who are living evidence that sometimes stages 4 colon cancer is survivable.

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How Stage Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival Rates

Determining a cancers stage helps your care team decide on a treatment plan, but it also helps predict outcomes. Survival statistics are often calculated by stage and presented as five-year relative survival rates, based on the number of people alive five or more years after their diagnosis. While these numbers can help patients better understand their potential prognosis, they are only estimates based on averages rather than individuals. They also reflect the outcomes of patients in the past and may not account for recent advances in treatment.

In 2022, about 19,880 women in the United States will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer and about 12,810 will die, according to the American Cancer Society.

The National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program places the overall five-year relative survival rate at 49.1 percent, meaning that 49 out of every 100 women with ovarian cancer will survive for at least five years after their diagnosis. However, survival rates vary depending on the stage:

  • Ovarian cancer that has not spread outside the ovaries has a five-year relative survival rate of 92.6 percent.
  • For stage 2 or stage 3 ovarian cancers that have spread to nearby locations, the survival rate is 74.8 percent.
  • Stage 4 ovarian cancer has a survival rate of 30.3 percent.

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