Sunday, February 25, 2024

Survival Rates For Bladder Cancer

Risk Of Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

Bladder cancer occurs mainly in older people. About 9 out of 10 people with this cancer are over the age of 55. The average age of people when they are diagnosed is 73.

Overall, the chance men will develop this cancer during their life is about 1 in 27. For women, the chance is about 1 in 89.

Whites are more likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer than African Americans or Hispanic Americans.

Prognosis In Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Tumor stage, lymph node involvement, and tumor grade have been shown to be of independent prognostic value in SCC. However, pathologic stage is the most important prognostic factor. In one relatively large series of 154 cases, the overall 5-year survival rate was 56% for pT1 and 68% for pT2 tumors. However, the 5-year survival rate for pT3 and pT4 tumors was only 19%.

Several studies have demonstrated grading to be a significant morphologic parameter in SCC. In one series, 5-year survival rates for grade 1, 2, and 3 SCC was 62%, 52%, and 35%, respectively. In the same study of patients undergoing cystectomy, the investigators suggested that a higher number of newly formed blood vessels predicts unfavorable disease outcome.

In SCC, the survival rate appears to be better with radical surgery than with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. In locally advanced tumors, however, neoadjuvant radiation improves the outcome. Sex and age have not been prognostically significant in SCC.

Causes And Risk Factors

Researchers dont know exactly what causes bladder cancer, but they do know what increases the risk of getting it. These risk factors range from family history to certain types of medication.

Source: Valisure

Data published in 2021 on MedRxiv by researchers from the online pharmacy Valisure and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center showed patients who took Zantac had elevated diagnosis rates of bladder, breast, prostate and thyroid cancer.

Patients should keep in mind that this data suggests a link between ranitidine and increased risk, but it doesnt prove that all people who take ranitidine will get bladder cancer.

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What Are The Facts About Superficial Bladder Cancer

Superficial Bladder Cancer is the most common type of cancer, and the symptoms of Bladder Cancer are bleeding in the urine, known as hematuria.

Smoking is the major risk factor of superficial Bladder cancer, the risk factor increasing by 3 to 4 times more likely to get the disease.

There are two types of sub-divisions of superficial Bladder Cancer known as non- Invasive or superficial and Invasion.

Treatment for superficial Bladder cancer is known as Transurethral Resection of the Bladder Tumor it removes the tumor from the Bladder through Urethra and provides instructions to both stages and grades of the tumor.

Superficial Bladder cancer is staged and classified to the extent of the spread of cancer and grades how abnormal cells appear below the microscope to determine the treatment for patients.

T1 Tumor has a high risk of recurrence and progression and might need additional treatment in the form of chemotherapy or BCG instillation in the bladder.

Radical Cystectomy is a bladder removal that is an option for patients who are not responding to other treatments.

Risk factor for superficial bladder cancer increases with age, and it is more common in men than in women.

Can diagnose superficial bladder cancer in many ways. Your doctor will recommend a complete medical history, and they may tell you to perform a rectal or vaginal test to check for tumors.

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Ubc Occurrence Is About Threefold Higher In Europe And North America

Bladder Cancer Survival Rates

Although usually not perceived as such by the general population, UBC is among the more commonly occurring cancers. It ranks tenth in worldwide absolute incidence: sixth in men and seventeenth in women . Approximately 550,000 new UBCs were diagnosed worldwide in 2018 . The worldwide Age Standardized Incidence Rate per year is 9.6 per 100,000 for males and 2.4 per 100,000 for females. Figure 1 shows the worldwide ASRs for UBC in both sexes.

Fig. 1

The incidence varies significantly between geographical regions, with the highest rates observed in Europe and North America, but also in Syrian, Israeli, Egyptian and Turkish males. About threefold lower rates are seen in South-East Asia, except for Japan, and in Latin America and Northern Africa in both sexes . The lowest rates are observed in Sub-Saharan Africa, Mexico and some Middle Eastern and Central Asian countries.

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Is Bladder Cancer Treatable

Many types of therapy are used to treat bladder cancer. In general, the treatment pathway chosen depends on the type and stage of bladder cancer present and a patients overall health and individual preferences. Common treatment options include:

  • Surgery: to remove tumor cells and surrounding tissue. The type of surgery used depends on factors such as the size and progression of the tumor.
  • Chemotherapy: which refers to the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be local or systemic .
  • Immunotherapy: which uses naturally occurring or man-made substances to improve or bolster the bodys immune system function. Like with chemotherapy, immunotherapy may be delivered locally or systemically.
  • Radiation therapy: which uses x-rays or other high-energy waves or particles to kill cancer cells.

Substantial Improvement In Survival

Dr. Powles and his colleagues enrolled 700 people with locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer in the international JAVELIN Bladder 100 study, which was funded by Pfizer, the drugs manufacturer.

All trial participants had already received chemotherapywith either cisplatin and gemcitabine or carboplatin and gemcitabine, if their health did not allow them to receive cisplatinand their disease had not worsened during chemotherapy.

Participants were then randomly assigned to receive either maintenance treatment with avelumab plus supportive care or supportive care alone. People in the maintenance group received infusions of avelumab every 2 weeks until their cancer started growing again or they left the study for other reasons. Supportive care for both groups included pain management, nutritional support, and treatment of infections.

People in the supportive care group whose cancer got worse did not receive avelumab as part of the trial. However, they could receive it or any other immunotherapy drug after leaving the study.

Maintenance treatment with avelumab after chemotherapy turned out to have substantial benefits. The median overall survival for people who received maintenance avelumab was more than 21 months, compared with about 14 months for people who received only supportive care until their cancer got worse.

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Prognosis And Survival Rates For Bladder Cancer

When someone is diagnosed with bladder cancer, their doctor will give them a prognosis. A prognosis is the doctors opinion of how likely the cancer will spread and the chances of getting better. A prognosis depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the persons age and general health.

Bladder cancer can usually be effectively treated if it is found before it spreads outside the bladder.

If you have bladder cancer, your doctor will talk to you about your individual situation when working out your prognosis. Every persons experience is different, and there is support available to you.

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Primary Small Cell Carcinoma In Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case

Differences in survival rates among non-urothelial bladder cancers

Ahmet Çamtosun

1Turgut Özal Medical Center, Department of Urology, Malatya, Turkey

2Turgut Özal Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Malatya, Turkey

Abstract

Small cell carcinoma of bladder, which does not have a common and accepted treatment protocol, is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. It is mostly pulmonary originated however, it can rarely be seen in extrapulmonary sites. We presented an interesting and uncommon case, in which the transitional cell tumor was found in the transurethral resection specimen, but the small cell carcinoma was detected in the final radical cystectomy material.

1. Introduction

Small cell carcinoma is less than 1% in urinary bladder tumors and is very aggressive and refractory to treatment due to its higher metastatic capability compared to other common bladder tumors . When it is diagnosed, the disease is mostly in the metastatic stage, so the patients generally have a poor prognosis. To improve the cure chance or life expectancy, a multidisciplinary approach including radical cystectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy should be initiated as soon as possible .

2. Case Report

3. Discussion

Small cell carcinoma of bladder was firstly reported in 1981 by Cremer et al. . There were 600 cases reported till now. This is a very aggressive tumor and generally has a poor prognosis. More than 60% of the reported patients were metastatic at diagnosis .

4. Conclusion

Conflict of Interests

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Treatment For Advanced Bladder Cancer

If bladder cancer has spread to other parts of the body, it is known as advanced or metastatic bladder cancer. You may be offered one or a combination of the following treatments to help control the cancer and ease symptoms:

  • systemic chemotherapy
  • radiation therapy.

Immunotherapy uses the bodys own immune system to fight cancer. BCG is a type of immunotherapy treatment that has been used for many years to treat non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

A new group of immunotherapy drugs called checkpoint inhibitors work by helping the immune system to recognise and attack the cancer. A checkpoint immunotherapy drug called pembrolizumab is now available in Australia for some people with urothelial cancer that has spread beyond the bladder. The drug is given directly into a vein through a drip, and the treatment may be repeated every 2 to 4 weeks for up to 2 years.

Other types of checkpoint immunotherapy drugs may become available soon.

Small Cell Cancer Survival Rate

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Of the over 220,000 people in the US each diagnosed with lung cancer, about 10-15% of them will be diagnosed with the subtype of small cell lung cancer. While all lung cancers are serious, the prognosis for small cell lung cancer is especially dire.

In small cell lung cancer, the cancer cells are small and have the capacity to divide quickly and metastasize, meaning that surgery tends not to be the top option for treatment. Rather, since the cancer cells are so aggressive, chemotherapy tends to be the optimal induction treatment for this patient population.

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When Metastatic Cancer Can No Longer Be Controlled

If you have been told your cancer can no longer be controlled, you and your loved ones may want to discuss end-of-life care. Whether or not you choose to continue treatment to shrink the cancer or control its growth, you can always receive palliative care to control the symptoms of cancer and the side effects of treatment. Information on coping with and planning for end-of-life care is available in the Advanced Cancer section of this site.

Small Cell Lung Cancer Survival Rates

Non

Even with advanced treatment options, the small cell lung cancer survival rate is not as good as it is with other types of lung cancer. SCLC can grow and spread quickly. And according to statistics, the likelihood of living for five years after youve been diagnosed with SCLC is between 3% and 27%, depending on how advanced the cancer is when its found.

Hearing this and the fact that SCLC is not usually not curable is difficult. But the disease is always treatable, and newer approaches have improved patients ability to manage the disease and live longer than before.

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What Is Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

Muscle invasive bladder cancer is a cancer that spreads into the detrusor muscle of the bladder. The detrusor muscle is the thick muscle deep in the bladder wall. This cancer is more likely to spread to other parts of the body.

In the U.S., bladder cancer is the third most common cancer in men. Each year, there are more than 83,000 new cases diagnosed in men and women. About 25% of bladder cancers are MIBC. Bladder cancer is more common as a person grows older. It is found most often in the age group of 75-84. Caucasians are more likely to get bladder cancer than any other ethnicity. But there are more African-Americans who do not survive the disease.

What is Cancer?

Cancer is when your body cells grow out of control. When this happens, the body cannot work the way it should. Most cancers form a lump called a tumor or a growth. Some cancers grow and spread fast. Others grow more slowly. Not all lumps are cancers. Cancerous lumps are sometimes called malignant tumors.

What is Bladder Cancer?

When cells of the bladder grow abnormally, they can become bladder cancer. A person with bladder cancer will have one or more tumors in his/her bladder.

How Does Bladder Cancer Develop and Spread?

The bladder wall has many layers, made up of different types of cells. Most bladder cancers start in the urothelium or transitional epithelium. This is the inside lining of the bladder. Transitional cell carcinoma is cancer that forms in the cells of the urothelium.

Survival Rates For Bladder Cancer

Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.

Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Your doctor is familiar with your situation ask how these numbers may apply to you.

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What Are The Risks Of Bladder Cancer

No single factor is directly connected to bladder cancer, but factors that can increase the risk include:

  • Age: Bladder cancer typically affects people age 55 and older.
  • Smoking: Carcinogens from tobacco smoke come in contact with the lining of the bladder. Smokers are three times as likely as non-smokers to get bladder cancer.
  • Family history: There is evidence that bladder cancer may have a genetic component.
  • Industrial chemicals: Chemicals known as aromatic amines are often used in the dye industry. Workers who have daily exposure to them, such as painters, machinists and hairdressers, may be at a higher risk for bladder cancer.
  • Drinking contaminated water: This includes water that has been treated with chlorine or drinking water with a naturally high level of arsenic, which occurs in many rural communities in the United States,.
  • Taking certain herb: Supplements such as Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb, sometimes used for weight loss has been linked to higher rates of bladder cancer.

Adenocarcinoma And Small Cell Carcinoma

Survival Differences for Women with Bladder Cancer

Adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma are rare forms of bladder cancer. Each makes up about one percent of bladder cancers, according to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

Adenocarcinoma is linked to inflammation and chronic infection as well as bladder defects at birth. Small cell carcinoma begins in the small nerve-like cells in the bladder and is an aggressive cancer.

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Are There Any Treatments For Terminal Cancer

Terminal cancer is incurable. This means no treatment will eliminate the cancer. But there are many treatments that can help make someone as comfortable as possible. This often involves minimizing the side effects of both the cancer and any medications being used.

Some doctors might still administer chemotherapy or radiation to prolong life expectancy, but this isnt always a feasible option.

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Latest Bladder Cancer Data

Bladder cancer is the 10th most common cancer worldwide. It is the 6th most common cancer in men and the 17th most common cancer in women.

There were more than 573,000 new cases of bladder cancer in 2020.

The 10 countries with the highest rates of bladder cancer and the highest number of deaths from bladder cancer in 2020 are shown in the tables below.

ASR = age-standardised rates. These are a summary measure of the rate of disease that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Standardisation is necessary when comparing populations that differ with respect to age because age has a powerful influence on the risk of dying from cancer.

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Original Researchbladder Cancer Survival: Women Better Off In The Long Run

Gender-related risk ratio of bladder cancerrelated death is not stable over time.

Female risk rates are significantly higher within the first 2 years after diagnosis.

Men experience higher risk for bladder cancerrelated death in the long run.

T-Stage at diagnosis explains much of gender-specific survival difference.

Recalcitrant Cancer Research Act

Table 1 from Survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy in stage III and ...

In 2013, the US Congress passed the Recalcitrant Cancer Research Act, which mandated increased attention to certain recalcitrant cancers, including small cell lung cancer. That led to the National Cancer Institute supporting small cellspecific research through a consortium.

As a result, new experimental drugs for small cell lung cancer are currently being tested, including Iadademstat and Keytruda .

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What Types Of Testing Should I Expect For Monitoring My Condition

Since metastatic prostate cancer isnt curable, your doctor will most likely set up regular visits to check the cancers location, and to manage any long-term side effects from the cancer or any medication youre taking.

And since treatments for advanced prostate cancer are changing so fast and need to be given in a certain sequence to be the most effective, youll probably have not only a prostate cancer doctor but other specialists taking care of you. Your care team should coordinate closely, say the authors of a major study of such teams published in August 2015 in the journal Annals of Oncology.

Along with regularly testing your prostate-specific antigen levels, your care team may request blood tests that measure such prostate cancer indicators as alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. Magnetic resonance imaging or PET scans of the spine or other bones can also help identify how your cancer responds to treatment.

If youve had radiation, youre at an increased risk for bladder and colorectal cancer and should get screened regularly for these as well.

The tests youll have and how often youll need them should be customized to you. Your care team will consider your overall health, medications that are safe for you to take, other health conditions you might have, and what stage your cancer was when you were diagnosed.

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