Sunday, February 25, 2024

Symptoms Of Advanced Bladder Cancer

Seek Medical Attention For Symptoms

What are the signs and symptoms of advanced bladder cancer?

It is important to recognize and seek treatment for symptoms that may be caused by bladder cancer, because treatment tends to be more effective the earlier it is diagnosed. Many patients have a delayed diagnosis of bladder cancer because they ignore the symptoms or assume they are due to some other cause. Be sure to talk with your healthcare provider if you experience any symptoms that may be caused by bladder cancer, especially if you notice blood in your urine.

What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer

When prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer is often grouped into four stages, with stages III and IV being more advanced prostate cancer.

  • Early Stage | Stages I & II: The tumor has not spread beyond the prostate.
  • Locally Advanced | Stage III: Cancer has spread outside the prostate but only to nearby tissues.
  • Advanced | Stage IV: Cancer has spread outside the prostate to other parts such as the lymph nodes, bones, liver or lungs.

When an early stage prostate cancer is found, it may be treated or placed on surveillance . Advanced prostate cancer is not curable, but there are many ways to treat it. Treatment can help slow advanced prostate cancer progression.

There are several types of advanced prostate cancer, including:

Biochemical Recurrence

With biochemical recurrence, the prostate-specific antigen level has risen after treatment using surgery or radiation, with no other sign of cancer.

Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer that no longer responds to hormone treatment and is only found in the prostate. This is found by a rise in the PSA level, while the testosterone level stays low. Imaging tests do not show signs the cancer has spread.

Metastatic Prostate Cancer

  • Other organs, such as liver or lungs

Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer

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Stages Of Bladder Cancer

Cancer staging is typically determined by the extent to which a cancer has grown or spread. A staging system is a way for professionals to specifically describe how much a cancer has progressed. Typically, the TNM system is used for bladder cancer and represents the following:

  • T describes how far the main tumor has grown
  • N reveals any cancer spread to lymph nodes near the bladder
  • M reveals whether the cancer has spread to other locations away from the bladder.

Bladder Cancer Stages

The following is an example of bladder cancer stages and the TNM system:

Stage 0a : The cancer is non-invasive papillary carcinoma and has not invaded the connective tissue or bladder wall muscle. Stage 0is : Cancerous cells in the inner lining tissue of the bladder only.Stage I : Tumor has spread onto the bladder wall.Stage II : Tumor has penetrated the inner wall and is present in muscle of the bladder wall. Stage III : Tumor has spread through the bladder to fat around the bladder.Stage IV applies to one of the following: : Tumor has grown through the bladder wall and into the pelvic or abdominal wall.Any T, N1, M0: The tumor has spread to the nearby lymph nodes.Any T, any N, M1: The tumor has spread to distant lymph nodes or to sites such as bones, liver, or lungs.

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What Are The Risks Of Bladder Cancer

No single factor is directly connected to bladder cancer, but factors that can increase the risk include:

  • Age: Bladder cancer typically affects people age 55 and older.
  • Smoking: Carcinogens from tobacco smoke come in contact with the lining of the bladder. Smokers are three times as likely as non-smokers to get bladder cancer.
  • Family history: There is evidence that bladder cancer may have a genetic component.
  • Industrial chemicals: Chemicals known as aromatic amines are often used in the dye industry. Workers who have daily exposure to them, such as painters, machinists and hairdressers, may be at a higher risk for bladder cancer.
  • Drinking contaminated water: This includes water that has been treated with chlorine or drinking water with a naturally high level of arsenic, which occurs in many rural communities in the United States,.
  • Taking certain herb: Supplements such as Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb, sometimes used for weight loss has been linked to higher rates of bladder cancer.

Other Immunotherapies For Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer symptoms causes risk factors Vector Image

Researchers are testing other potential immunotherapy drugs to see how well they work on their own and combined with other treatments.

Theyre also testing combinations of immunotherapies. Early results showed that nivolumab combined with another drug, ipilimumab, worked in 26% to 38% of people who took them.

Studies are also looking at atezolizumab in combination with another checkpoint inhibitor called MTIG7192A.

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Symptoms Of Recurrent Bladder Cancer

Although seven of every 10 cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed at an early stage when the cancer is treatable, post-treatment recurrence is a particular risk, and the disease has a recurrence rate of about 70%19. Because of this, individuals who have had bladder cancer will require surveillance for years following treatment.

Recurrence happens when you have smaller areas of cancer cells that stay in your body undetected. These cells, over time, might increase in number and eventually cause symptoms or show up on test results. Your doctor, who knows your medical history, will discuss your risk of recurrence during follow-up care.

Symptoms of recurrent bladder cancer often resemble those of early or advanced cancer. Let your doctor know if you develop any new symptoms like frequent urination, blood in your urine, immediate need to urinate or pain while urinating. These symptoms could be signs of bladder cancer recurrence or signs of another health condition.

Knowing the symptoms and signs of bladder cancer, no matter if it’s early, advanced or recurrent, is important and your first step to diagnosis and treatment.

Living With Bladder Cancer

Cancer is a life-changing experience. And although theres no surefire way of preventing a recurrence, you can take steps to feel and stay healthy. Eating plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and keeping to modest portions of lean meat is a great start. If you smoke, stop. Limit alcohol to one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men. Daily exercise and regular checkups will also support your health and give you peace of mind.

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Tests To Determine Stage And Grade

Bladder cancer is classified by stage and grade. The stage is determined by the cancer growth in the bladder wall and how far it has spread to nearby tissues and other organs, such as the lungs, the liver, or the bones. The grade of bladder cancer is determined by how the cancer cells look in comparison with normal bladder cells.

Your doctor finds out the stage and grade of your bladder cancer by gathering information from several tests, including:

  • Biopsies from the cystoscopy.
  • An intravenous pyelogram or CT urogram to look for a mass near the kidneys, ureters, or bladder.
  • Ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging . These help find out if the cancer has spread to lymph nodes, the lungs, the liver, or other abdominal organs.
  • CT scan. This finds out if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
  • Chest X-ray. This finds out if the cancer has spread to the lungs.
  • Bone scan. This finds out if the cancer has spread to the bones.

Knowing the stage and grade of your cancer is important in choosing the right treatments.

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What Is Stage 4 Bladder Cancer

Understanding Advanced Bladder Cancer

Receiving a diagnosis of stage 4 bladder cancer can feel overwhelming.

Stage 4 bladder cancer is the most advanced stage, and the prognosis is less promising than in earlier stages.

Many cancer treatments can be challenging. However, treatment can reduce or even eliminate your symptoms and help you live a longer, more comfortable life.

Its important to consider the pros and cons of treating stage 4 bladder cancer because treatments have side effects and risks.

Symptoms of bladder cancer can include:

  • blood or blood clots in your urine
  • pain or burning during urination
  • frequent urination
  • needing to urinate at night
  • needing to urinate but not being able to
  • lower back pain on one side of the body

These symptoms commonly lead to a diagnosis, but they arent unique to stage 4 bladder cancer.

Stage 4 bladder cancer is also called metastatic bladder cancer. This means the cancer has spread outside the bladder into other areas.

People with metastatic cancer may experience symptoms relating to where the cancer has spread. For example, if bladder cancer has spread to the lungs, they may experience chest pain or increased coughing.

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What Is Bladder Cancer In Dogs

Bladder cancer in dogs is a tumor that develops due to the abnormal growth of cells in the urinary bladder. This type of tumor of the urinary tract is relatively rare in dogs and accounts for about 1% or less of all canine tumors.

Bladder cancer is usually diagnosed in the late stages. This is because the obvious symptoms and signs of bladder cancer in dogs are similar to those of urinary tract infections . Plus, invasive transitional cell carcinoma, as the most common type of bladder cancer in dogs, develops really quickly and aggressively.

Early Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer

The following are some of the early-stage bladder cancer symptoms you might experience:

1. Blood in the Urine

Blood in urine, often referred to as hematuria, is the most common symptom or sign of bladder cancer. With this symptom:

  • You might have enough blood to change your urine color to pink, orange or, less often, dark red.
  • Your urine color is sometimes normal, but a urine test , which the doctor performs during a general medical checkup or if you have other symptoms, can still detect small traces of blood.
  • You may have blood one day and not the next, with your urine staying clear for weeks or maybe even months at a time.

Generally, the earlier stages of bladder cancer when the cancer is small and confined to your bladder only cause bleeding with either no pain or little pain.

It’s important to note that blood in your urine doesn’t necessarily indicate bladder cancer. The cause of blood may be due to another factor. In fact, many healthy individuals may have some unseen blood in their urine at some stage . And, for most individuals, the cause isn’t cancer.

In many situations, the cause is due to other things like benign tumors, medications or foods, infection, bladder or kidney stones or another benign kidney disease. Still, you should have your doctor check it out.

If you’re concerned about cancer, ask them about Cxbladder, a non-invasive genomic urine test that quickly and accurately detects or rules out bladder cancer.

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Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer In Men And Women

Worldwide, bladder cancer is the tenth most common cancer3, with males 4 times more likely than females to be diagnosed with the disease during their lifetime.

In the United States, 81,400 new cases of bladder cancer and 17,980 attributed deaths were estimated to occur in 2020. In the United States, bladder cancer is also 4 times more common in males than females across all races and is most common in White men.4

Treatment Of Stage I Bladder Cancer

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For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of stage I bladder cancer may include the following:

  • Radical cystectomy.
  • A clinical trial of a new treatment.
  • Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

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    Bladder Cancer Is A Disease In Which Malignant Cells Form In The Tissues Of The Bladder

    The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney through a long tube called a ureter into the bladder. The bladder holds the urine until it passes through the urethra and leaves the body.

    There are three types of bladder cancer that begin in cells in the lining of the bladder. These cancers are named for the type of cells that become malignant :

    • Transitional cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in cells in the innermost tissue layer of the bladder. These cells are able to stretch when the bladder is full and shrink when it is emptied. Most bladder cancers begin in the transitional cells. Transitional cell carcinoma can be low-grade or high-grade:
    • Low-grade transitional cell carcinoma often recurs after treatment, but rarely spreads into the muscle layer of the bladder or to other parts of the body.
    • High-grade transitional cell carcinoma often recurs after treatment and often spreads into the muscle layer of the bladder, to other parts of the body, and to lymph nodes. Almost all deaths from bladder cancer are due to high-grade disease.

    See the following PDQ summaries for more information:

    Treatments After Or Instead Of Surgery

    Sometimes, doctors will use a mix of chemotherapy and radiation therapy to avoid surgery to remove the bladder. It can be a good option if youre not healthy enough for surgery. In this case, you will likely take the chemo drug cisplatin by itself, cisplatin and fluorouracil, or mitomycin with fluorouracil.

    You may also get chemotherapy and radiation together after surgery if your cancer has grown into the muscle layer of the bladder but hasnt spread elsewhere.

    If your cancer spreads after chemo, you can try other chemotherapy drugs or other types of medicine, like immunotherapy.

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    Treatment Of Stages Ii And Iii Bladder Cancer

    For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

    Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

    Bladder Cancer In Dogs Stages

    What is advanced bladder cancer and where does it usually spread?

    Staging is a way to measure the primary tumor with X-rays or ultrasound to see how far the cancer may have spread and assess what level of risk there is to the dog.

    Following the staging tests, your veterinarian may grade the tumor as low, intermediate, or high risk, depending on what stage it has reached. Unfortunately, most dogs with bladder tumors have intermediate to high-grade invasive TCC, which is high risk and difficult to treat.

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    Five Types Of Standard Treatment Are Used:

    Surgery

    One of the following types of surgery may be done:

    • Transurethral resection with fulguration: Surgery in which a cystoscope is inserted into the bladder through the urethra.A tool with a small wire loop on the end is then used to remove thecancer or to burn the tumor away with high-energy electricity. This is known as fulguration.
    • Radical cystectomy: Surgery to remove the bladder and anylymph nodes and nearby organs that contain cancer. This surgery may bedone when the bladder cancer invades the muscle wall, or when superficialcancer involves a large part of the bladder. In men, the nearby organs that areremoved are the prostate and the seminal vesicles. In women, the uterus, theovaries, and part of the are removed. Sometimes, when the cancer hasspread outside the bladder and cannot be completely removed, surgery to removeonly the bladder may be done to reduce urinarysymptoms caused by the cancer.When the bladder must be removed, the surgeon creates another way for urine toleave the body.
    • Partial cystectomy: Surgery to remove part of thebladder. This surgery may be done for patients who have a low-grade tumor thathas invaded the wall of the bladder but is limited to one area of the bladder.Because only a part of the bladder is removed, patients are able to urinate normally afterrecovering from this surgery. This is also called segmental cystectomy.
    • Urinary diversion: Surgery to make a new way forthe body to store and pass urine.

    Radiation therapy

    Invisible Blood In Your Urine

    The urine sample you leave as part of a routine checkup or other medical visit is often checked for microscopic amounts of blood during a lab test called urinalysis. If even a few red blood cells are found, you should always find out the cause, Lotan says. Though theres usually another explanation, these traces of blood can be the first signs of bladder cancer, he says.

    Other possible causes include urinary tract infections, kidney or bladder stones and prostate problems. Women with blood in their urine often are assumed to have urinary tract infections, but that diagnosis should always be confirmed with a culture, a test that finds any bacteria growing in the urine, Bochner says. The assumption that women are unlikely to have bladder cancer is one reason women are diagnosed later and fare worse with the disease than men do, says Eugene Pietzak, also a urologic surgeon at Memorial Sloan Kettering.

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