Metastatic Cancer Or Advanced Liver Cancer
Metastatic cancer, also called advanced or stage 4, has spread to the lymph nodes or other areas. Doctors can no longer treat it with surgical intervention.
If these medications do not work, a doctor may recommend using different targeted or immunotherapy medications.
They may also recommend participating in a clinical trial of new, possibly more effective treatment methods.
Finally, a doctor may recommend additional treatments to help relieve symptoms, as well as radiation therapy to further shrink the tumor.
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Stages Of Breast Cancer
Your breast cancer stage indicates the severity of the disease upon diagnosis. Your breast cancer stage indicates the severity of the disease upon diagnosis. Your cancer stage will always stay the same, even if the cancer shrinks or spreads during or after treatment. For instance, if youre diagnosed with stage 1 breast cancer, but the tumor later grows and spreads, its not considered stage 3 or 4 breast cancer. To determine whether the cancer has responded to treatment, a new stage may later be assigned an r in front of it to show that its different from the original stage.
Breast cancer staging is classified by:
- The size and location of the tumor
- Whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or other parts of the body
- The grade of the tumoror how likely it is to grow and spread
- Whether certain biomarkershormone receptors or other proteinshave been found
All these attributes help your care team determine how to treat your cancer.
To assess the location, size and spread of cancer, your care team will use the TNM Staging System, developed and updated for breast cancer by the American Joint Committee on Cancer .
- TNM stands for Tumor-Node-Metastasis, which are important factors in determining the severity of your cancer.
- All cancers may be evaluated by TNM markers, but breast cancer staging also uses a few extra criteria for a more detailed description.
- Ultimately, your specific combination of TNM and these other markers will determine your cancers stage.
What Is Stage Iv Of Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer is staged primarily using the TNM method of staging cancers, T stands for Tumour, N stands for node and M for Metastasis. Tumour shows the size of the primary tumour, Node shows the presence of cancer in the lymph nodes and Metastasis is the spreading of cancer from the primary tissue to the other tissues and organs.
In this stage, the pancreatic cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body as well. The tumour size is bigger than 4 cm in size and there could be more number of cancerous lymph nodes. The staging here could be .
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The Risk Of Metastatic Breast Cancer
The risk of metastasis after breast cancer treatment varies from person to person. It depends on:
- The biology of the tumor
- The stage at the time of the original diagnosis
- The treatments for the original cancer
Modern treatments continue to improve survival for people with metastatic breast cancer. However, survival varies greatly from person to person.
About one-third of women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer in the U.S. live at least 5 years after diagnosis . Some women may live 10 or more years beyond diagnosis .
Your oncologist can give you some information about your prognosis, but they dont know exactly how long you will live.
Treating Stage Ii Rectal Cancer
Many stage II rectal cancers have grown through the wall of the rectum and might extend into nearby tissues. They have not spread to the lymph nodes.
Most people with stage II rectal cancer will be treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, although the order of these treatments might be different for some people. For example, heres a common approach to treating these cancers:
- Many people get both chemo and radiation therapy as their first treatment. The chemo given with radiation is usually either 5-FU or capecitabine .
- Additional chemo is then given after surgery, usually for a total of about 6 months. The chemo may be the FOLFOX regimen , 5-FU and leucovorin, CAPEOX or capecitabine alone, based on whats best suited to your health needs.
Another option might be to get chemotherapy alone first, followed by chemo plus radiation therapy, then followed by surgery.
For people who cant have chemo plus radiation, surgery might be done first. This might be followed by chemo, and sometimes radiation therapy.
Diagnosing Stage 4 Lung Cancer
If a doctor thinks you may have stage 4 lung cancer , theyll take several steps to make a diagnosis.
First, your doctor will request an initial meeting where they can take note of your symptoms, any family history of cancer, and your overall health. All of these will help the doctor to narrow down the possible causes of your symptoms.
If your doctor thinks you may have cancer after this visit, theyll likely order imaging tests. These tests will allow doctors to see inside the lungs for possibly cancerous tumors. Imaging tests can also be used to see if the cancer has reached other parts of the body.
Tests used to make a stage 4 lung cancer diagnosis include:
- CT scans: CT scans take pictures of the inside of your body at different angles. These scans can help doctors see if there are tumors in your lungs and if the tumors have reached the lymph nodes or organs like the liver or brain.
- MRI scans: Magnetic resonance imaging scans use magnetic waves to generate pictures of the bodys insides. This scan is especially effective for examining the brain and/or spinal cord for lung cancer tumors.
- PET scans: Doctors inject a tiny amount of radioactive sugar into the patients body. The sugar settles where the cancer cells are. Doctors then use a positron emission tomography scan to see where the cancer tumors are located within the body.
What Is Cancer Restaging
The stage of a cancer given at the time of diagnosis and initial treatments does not change. This is so doctors can understand a person’s medical progress, help understand the prognosis, and learn how treatment affects many people.
However, if the cancer comes back or spreads, restaging can be done. This is described with a small “r.” For example, rN1 is restaging of the lymph nodes. Usually some of the same tests that were done when the cancer was first diagnosed will be done again. After this, the doctor can assign the cancer a restage or “r stage.”
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Diagnostic Tests That Inform The Clinical Stage
Many methods are used to detect and stage cancer. Some of the common tests include:
Biopsy: The doctor uses a needle to extract breast tissue or fluid, which is then sent to a lab. There, various techniques are used to examine different attributes, such as hormone receptor or HER2 status.
Tumor markers: Rapidly dividing cancerous cells interrupt some of the normal mechanisms of cell growth. This causes the cell to overproduce certain molecules. Lab tests detect these compounds, known as tumor markers, in blood or tissue samples.
Imaging techniques: Several different scans are used to examine characteristics of your cancer. Below are some of the noninvasive imaging techniques you might encounter:
- MRI scans use magnets and radio waves to generate detailed pictures of your tissues.
- CT scans use X-rays to look at your organs. Nuclear scans trace the flow of an injected safe radioactive dye in your body.
- PET scans are similar to nuclear scans but specifically examine glucose consumption in the bodysince cancer cells use more glucose than normal cells.
- Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to see inside your body.
Stage 4 Lung Cancer Surgery
Surgery is the best first-line treatment for many cases of lung cancer. However, major surgeries may or may not be used to treat stage 4 lung cancer.
Surgery is usually not recommended if the tumor cannot be completely removed.
American Society of Clinical Oncology
Oncologists may sometimes use surgery in cases of advanced non-small cell lung cancer if other treatments like chemotherapy shrink larger tumors. Its used more frequently in cases of stage 4A NSCLC, as there is only one additional tumor outside of the lungs, meaning doctors have a better shot at removing all visible cancer tumors.
Surgery is rarely used to treat extensive stage small cell lung cancer because of how widespread the tumors are.
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Whats The Life Expectancy For Stage 4 Stomach Cancer
When you think about life expectancy, there are some important things to keep in mind:
- Many factors affect your prognosis, including age, overall health, and the treatments you choose. Also, everyone responds differently to treatments, and theres no way to know how your body will respond.
- Survival rates are based on the stage at diagnosis.
- Relative survival rates compare people who have stomach cancer with people in the general population who dont have cancer.
- These statistics were compiled based on people diagnosed years ago. Cancer treatments change quickly. The latest treatments and increasing lifespans arent reflected in those earlier numbers.
According to the , the overall relative survival rate for all stages of stomach cancer is 31.5 percent. The five-year relative survival rate for distant stomach cancer is 5.3 percent. These figures include people diagnosed between 2009 and 2015.
Your doctor will consider your complete medical profile to help you understand your own outlook.
Treating Stage Iii Rectal Cancer
Stage III rectal cancers have spread to nearby lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body.
Most people with stage III rectal cancer will be treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, although the order of these treatments might differ.
Most often, chemo is given along with radiation therapy first. This may shrink the cancer, often making it easier to take out larger tumors. It also lowers the chance that the cancer will come back in the pelvis. Giving radiation before surgery also tends to lead to fewer problems than giving it after surgery.
After surgery, chemo is given, usually for about 6 months. The most common regimens include FOLFOX , 5-FU and leucovorin, CAPEOX , or capecitabine alone. Your doctor will recommend the one best suited to your health needs.
Another option might be to get chemotherapy alone first, followed by chemo plus radiation therapy, then followed by surgery.
For people who cant have chemo plus radiation for some reason, surgery might be the first treatment. This might be followed by chemotherapy, sometimes along with radiation therapy.
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Small Cell Lung Cancer
Classified differently than NSCLC, SCLC is referred to as either limited or extended when attributing the growth of tumors.
Stage IV Extended Stage
At stage IV, SCLC has already spread to other areas and may be classified as an extensive-stage small cell. Here, tumors may have metastasized to the other side of the chest, several lymph nodes, second lung, bone, brain, or bone marrow. Approximately two out of every three people diagnosed with SCLC are at the extensive stage.
Clinical Trials For Lung Cancer Stage 4
Patients with stage 4 lung cancer may be able to access newer treatments that arent widely available through a clinical trial. These trials test out emerging treatments or new combinations of existing ones to see if they help patients.
Patients can find nearby clinical trials for lung cancer by visiting the National Cancer Institute website. Or, patients can ask their doctor if there are any local clinical trials for late-stage lung cancer that they can join.
There are many clinical trials that are testing treatments for various types and stages of lung cancer. As a result, not every clinical trial will accept stage 4 lung cancer patients based on what the trial is studying.
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Cervical Cancer Treatment By Stage
The cancer stage is an important factor in deciding the best treatment for cervical cancer. Other factors, such as your preferences and overall health, are also important.
An important factor for some patients is fertility preservation. If you would like to retain the ability to become pregnant, ask your doctor about fertility-sparing treatment options . Such treatments may be an option for some small cancers that are only in the cervix. If your cancer is more advanced or has a high chance of coming back, you are more likely to have treatments that will prevent you from becoming pregnant. A reproductive endocrinologist can help you understand your options for becoming a parent, such as freezing eggs. For more information on fertility preservation options and ways to find support, see Fertility Issues in Girls and Women with Cancer.
Stage 4 Lung Cancer But A New Treatment Put Me Back On Stage
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Diane Taglioli-Hura, a public health researcher for Henry Ford, had been feeling a little unsteady for a couple weeks. While in the cafeteria, a wave of dizziness washed over her, and she fell. The next day, Henry Ford surgeons removed a golf-ball sized tumor from her brain, and she would find a highly experienced medical team that offered her hope.
In the eight months before her emergency surgery, Diane had been feeling great except for a tiny cough that sent her to the doctor twice. As a singer for 28 years in the Dearborn Big Band, she needed a strong voice. And she needed strong lungs to play her flute in the Redford Symphony Orchestra and the Michigan Flute Orchestra. But something was wrong.
Analysis of Dianes brain tumor showed she had stage 4 cancer it started in her lungs and metastasized to the brain. The news was terrifying. Her dad died of glioblastoma, her uncle died of lung cancer, her sister had lung cancer, and her husband survived non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
I was assigned to a brilliant but quiet oncologist, says Diane, who began six treatments of chemotherapy. You have to trust people you dont know. Its almost like someone takes you into the woods, blindfolds you, and tell you to run but you might hit a tree.
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Chemotherapy For Stage Iv Prostate Cancer
I am 79 years old and have had stage IV prostate cancer for three years now. Treatment has been immunotherapy, most recently Keytruda.
My oncologist seems to be giving up on the keytruda and is now advising/proposing chemotherapy using docetaxel.
I would appreciate receiving information on the experience people have had with chemotherapy in general, and with docetaxel specifically if anyone has gone this route.
Interested in more discussions like this? Go to the Prostate Cancer group.
I’ve just finished my 6 treatments of docetaxel. One every 3 weeks. My stage 4 prostate cancer has shown no progression. I am also getting a Lupron shot every 3 months and a bone infusion of zoledronic acid every month. My psa is non detectable. The treatments seem to be working but the side effects are pretty bad. You get really tired, no appetite and everything taste bad. I have lost 25 pounds during the treatment. As long as it works I can live with it. Just hoping my strength returns after this is out on my system.
Welcome @redroadtraveler. I moved your question to the Prostate Cancer support group here:
In addition to the helpful reply you got from @gdstewar, I’m bringing in fellow members @leebeth@sannira@rso who have experience with chemotherapy treatments including docetaxel and can share their experiences as well.
How are you doing with the prospect of going on chemotherapy?
Treating Metastatic Lung Cancer
Treating metastatic lung cancer is challenging. This stage of cancer may continue to spread, and small bits of the disease may linger in the body and cause a recurrence, even if the treatment appears successful. Therefore, treatment will typically focus on extending and bettering life by relieving symptoms and controlling the cancer’s growth. A few things to consider:
- If a patient has advanced lung cancer, he or she should ask a doctor what to expect from treatment.
- Patients may even want to seek a second opinion from another doctor to ensure that the treatment plan is satisfactory.
- The care team will weigh the benefits of treatment with the potential side effects and how these may impact health and well-being.
If the cancer has metastasized to one other siteparticularly the braina typical course of treatment may begin with surgery and radiation therapy to target the area where the cancer spread. Then, the focus shifts to the lung, where treatment may include some combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation .
More often, though, cancers at this stage may be too widespread and require systemic treatments that attack the cancer throughout the body.
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Treating Stage Iii Colon Cancer
Stage III colon cancers have spread to nearby lymph nodes, but they have not yet spread to other parts of the body.
Surgery to remove the section of the colon with the cancer along with nearby lymph nodes, followed by adjuvant chemo is the standard treatment for this stage.
For chemo, either the FOLFOX or CapeOx regimens are used most often, but some patients may get 5-FU with leucovorin or capecitabine alone based on their age and health needs.
For some advanced colon cancers that cannot be removed completely by surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy given along with radiation might be recommended to shrink the cancer so it can be removed later with surgery. For some advanced cancers that have been removed by surgery, but were found to be attached to a nearby organ or have positive margins , adjuvant radiation might be recommended. Radiation therapy and/or chemo may be options for people who arent healthy enough for surgery.