Ultrasound Features Of Thyroid Nodules
The vast majority of thyroid nodules are benign, and the role of a radiologist in assessment of the thyroid gland is to differentiate a malignant thyroid nodule from the more commonly seen benign ones. It is therefore important to evaluate the sonographic features of thyroid nodules as these aid in their characterization.
The incidence of malignancy is 4% when a solid thyroid nodule is hyperechoic. If the lesion is hypoechoic , the incidence of malignancy rises to 26% . However, hypoechogenicity alone is inaccurate in predicting malignancy, and if used as a sole predictive sign, it has a relatively poor specificity and positive predictive value .
Longitudinal grey scale sonogram shows a solid, hypoechoic thyroid nodule with ill-defined margins anteriorly. Histology: papillary carcinoma.
A malignant thyroid nodule tends to have ill-defined margins on ultrasound . A peripheral halo of decreased echogenicity is seen around hypoechoic and isoechoic nodules and is caused by either the capsule of the nodule or compressed thyroid tissue and vessels . The absence of a halo has a specificity of 77% and sensitivity of 67% in predicting malignancy .
Longitudinal grey scale sonogram shows coarse calcifications with dense shadowing within a thyroid nodule suggestive of benign calcification.
Comet tail sign
Colour flow patterns
In general there are three patterns of vascular distribution within a thyroid nodule :
Is Breast Cancer Painless
This is an unfortunate case with a difficult initial diagnosis. Breast cancers are usually painless. She was due for further assessment TRO malignancy. Due to economic reason, she defaulted follow up and by the time she came back, the mass has grown from 5mm to 3cm. her GP is now arranging for surgical referral and biopsy.
Endoscopic Teflon Or Deflux Gel Treatment For Vesico
This patient shows an echogenic mound in the left vesico-ureteric junction. The Color Doppler image shows a ureteric jet emerging from this region suggesting that the left distal ureteric orificeis patent. This patient had a history of vesico-ureteric reflux. This was corrected by a Teflon gel injected in the submucosal part of the left VUJ viathe endoscopic route. There are 5 grades of vescio-ureteral reflux. Grade-1: the VUR reaches below the renal pelvis. Grade-2: VUR reaches up to the renal pelvis without causing dilation of thepelvis. Grade-3: There is mild to moderate dilation of the renal pelvis and ureter. Grade-4: Moderate dilation of renal pelvis, ureter and calyces is present. Grade-5: Gross dilation of pelvicalyceswith tortuous and dilated ureter. Endoscopic deflux or Teflon gel injection is used for correcting of VU reflux from grade-2 to grade-5. the gel causes a small mound to form in the submucosal part ofthe distal ureteral orifice resulting in a kind of valve formation preventing the reflux of urine up the ureter. Teflon is now being replaced by Deflux gel as the preferred material for thisprocedure. Ultrasound images of endoscopic Teflon gel injection are courtesy of Dr. ravi Kadasne, MD, UAE.
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Will I Get My Ultrasound Results Straight Away
You may be told the results of your scan soon after its been carried out, but in most cases the images will need to be analysed and a report will be sent to the doctor who referred you for the scan. Theyll discuss the results with you a few days later or at your next appointment, if ones been arranged.
What Does Endometrial Cancer Look Like On Ultrasound
Endometrial cancer is suspected when the endometrium is thickened in a post menopausal women with vaginal bleeding. Approximately 10% of cases occur in women before menopause. Thickening of the endometrium in these women depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle. Not all cases occur with vaginal bleeding.
Normally the cutoff for thickness of the endometrium is 5 mm for a women after menopause. 8 mm is the cutoff for a women who is on hormone replacement or tamoxifen. The cutoff is variable in women before menopause depending on the phase of the cycle. Generally greater than 15 mm is abnormal no matter what the phase is.
Features that make cancer especially suspicious are heterogeneity and irregular thickening of endometrium, mass lesion in endometrium or invasion of the uterine wall. Ascites, pelvic masses and enlarged lymph nodes are some additional findings that may be seen with endometrial cancer.
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How Does Elastography Help With Breast Cancer
Ultrasound elastography is an additional software to assess tissue elasticity. Many papers have shown that it enhances diagnostic accuracy. Malignant lesions are generally harder than benign lesions. Therefore, elastography appears to increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast ultrasound by demonstrating the firmness of the mass. In the example shown, the colour bar at the left top corner is set to show red as soft and blue as hard. In the image shown, the blue region in the middle of the image corresponds to the mass seen on the scan. This indicates that the mass is stiff or hard in consistency.
What Happens After My Exam
Your images will be reviewed by a specialized radiologist who will compile a report that is sent to your doctor within 24 hours, sooner for urgent requests. Mayfair Diagnostics is owned and operated by over 50 radiologists who are fellowship-trained in many key areas, such as neuroradiology, body, cardiac, musculoskeletal, etc. This allows for an expert review of your imaging by the applicably trained radiologist.
Your images will be uploaded to a provincial picture archiving and communication system this technology provides electronic storage and convenient access to your medical images from multiple sources, such as your doctor, specialists, hospitals, and walk-in clinics.
Your doctor will review your images and the report from the radiologist and discuss next steps with you, such as a treatment plan or the need for further diagnostic imaging or lab tests to ensure an accurate diagnosis.
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Tests To Find Cancer In The Bladder
The main test to look for bladder cancer is a cystoscopy. This is an examination of the inner lining of the bladder with a cystoscope, a tube with a light and a camera on the end. Other tests can give your doctors more information about the bladder cancer. These may include an ultrasound before the cystoscopy, a biopsy taken during a cystoscopy, and a CT or MRI scan.
Learn more about:
Appearance On An Ultrasound
Breast ultrasound can detect some lumps that a mammogram cannot. It is also used to help diagnose masses found on a mammogram.
Ultrasound can help tell the difference between fluid-filled cysts, which arenât likely to be cancerous, and hard cysts that need further testing. Hard cysts are more likely to be cancerous.
On an ultrasound report, the term âhypoechoicâ refers to an area that appears darker in the images. This means the area is solid.
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Types Of Ultrasound Scans
There are different types of ultrasound scans. The type you need depends on the area of your body you’re having scanned. They include:
- external ultrasound scan – when the doctor or sonographer moves a probe over your skin
- endoscopic ultrasound scan – your doctor uses a thin flexible tube to look at part of your body, such as your food pipe , and the area around it
What Happens During A Breast Ultrasound
You may have a breast ultrasound as an outpatient or as part of your stay in a hospital. The way the test is done may vary depending on your condition and your healthcare providerâs practices.
Generally, breast ultrasound follows this process:
You will be asked to remove any jewelry and clothing from the waist up. You will be given a gown to wear.
You will lie on your back on an exam table. You will be asked to raise your arm above your head on the side of the breast to be looked at. Or you may be placed on your side.
The technologist will put a clear, warm gel on the skin over the breast area to be looked at.
The technologist will press the transducer against the skin and move it over the area being studied.
Once the test is done, the technologist will wipe off the gel.
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Screening For Bladder Cancer
Early-stage bladder cancer often shows no symptoms, or symptoms that are similar to those of benign conditions such as bladder stones, an enlarged prostate, or urinary tract infection. For this reason it is important to be examined regularly by a physician. If symptoms do appear they should be evaluated promptly so that bladder cancer can be detected in its earliest, most treatable stages.
Doctors may conduct some screening tests during an examination. During a urine cytology the doctor examines urine under a microscope to look for any cancerous or precancerous cells. During another test called a cystoscopy urologists place a cystocope, a flexible instrument consisting of a steerable slender tube with a camera or lens and a light, into the bladder through the urethra. They check the bladder and urethra for signs of cancer, remove any suspicious tissue, and check it under a microscope.
When Youre Diagnosed With Endometrial Cancer How Do You Feel
Unusual bleeding, such as after menopause or between periods, are among the first warning signs. Pain in the pelvic region may also be caused by endometrial cancer, albeit this occurs less often during sexual activity. Urination discomfort or trouble emptying the bladder are other common complaints.
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What Does Breast Cancer Look Like On A Mammogram
Any area that does not look like normal tissue is a possible cause for concern. The radiologist will look for areas of white, high-density tissue and note its size, shape, and edges.
A lump or tumor will show up as a focused white area on a mammogram. Tumors can be cancerous or benign.
If a tumor is benign, it is not a health risk and is unlikely to grow or change shape. Most tumors found in the breasts are non-cancerous.
Small white specks are usually harmless. The radiologist will check their shape and pattern, as they can sometimes be a sign of cancer.
As well as dense breast tissue and possible tumors, a radiologist will look for anything unusual on a mammogram.
Other abnormalities include:
A mass may refer to a tumor, cyst, or fibroadenoma, whether it is cancerous or not.
A mammogram can also give a person information about their breast density. People with dense breasts have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. Dense breasts can make it more difficult to find abnormalities on a mammogram.
Mammograms are still possible if a person has had breast cancer surgery or implants. However, it may be necessary to take more images of each breast, and it might take longer to check the images.
A radiologist will often compare a mammogram against previous images. This can help them to spot any changes and decide whether an unusual area could be a sign of cancer.
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Color Doppler Sonography: Characterizing Breast Lesions
Atif Hashmi, Susan Ackerman and Abid Irshad
Department of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, PO Box 250322, 169 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Department of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina PO Box 250322, 169 Ashley Avenue CharlestonSC 29425, USA Tel: +1 843 792 1957 Fax:+1 843 792 9503 E-mail:
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Are Hypoechoic Masses Cancerous
Ultrasounds are one tool in determining whether a mass is cancerous. Solid masses are hypoechoic and can be cancerous. Cysts filled with air or fluid are usually hyperechoic and are rarely cancerous.
Abnormal tissue also looks different from healthy tissue on a sonogram. Your doctor will usually do further testing if an ultrasound shows a solid mass or what looks like abnormal tissue.
Ultrasounds help doctors identify benign or malignant tumors. Benign tumors are usually all one type of tissue. They typically have clearly defined borders. They don’t invade other organs. But they may push on them or displace them.
Cancerous masses may contain more than one type of tissue. They often have irregular borders. They may invade nearby organs. It isnt easy to tell the difference between benign and malignant masses. There can be an overlap between both types.
Palpation Of Cancerous Masses
Cancerous masses in the breast are often very firm, like a rock or a carrot, and have an irregular shape and size. They are often fixedthey feel like they are attached to the skin or nearby tissue so that you cant move them around by pushing on thembut can be mobile. Theyre also not likely to be painful, though they can be in some cases.
On exam, other changes may be present as well, such as dimpling of the skin or an orange-peel appearance, nipple retraction, or enlarged lymph nodes in the armpit.
One type of breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, does not usually cause a lump but instead involves redness, swelling, and sometimes a rash on the skin of the breast.
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Why Do Women Get Radial Scars
They are fairly uncommon and occur most often in women between the ages of 40 and 60. They can be caused by inflammation, breast surgery, or hormonal changes. 5 . A biopsy is almost always needed, but even under the microscope radial scars can mimic breast cancer, particularly tubular carcinoma of the breast.
Whats An Ultrasound Procedure Like For Pancreatic Cancer
The procedure for an ultrasound depends on the type of ultrasound youre having. Both types are generally done as outpatient procedures, but an endoscopic ultrasound is slightly more complex. This is primarily because youll receive sedation during an endoscopic ultrasound to prevent any discomfort.
Read more about each procedure below.
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Endoscopic Ultrasound For Pancreatic Cancer Procedure
Before an endoscopic ultrasound, its important to talk with your doctor about any medications including vitamins and supplements that you take. They might ask you to stop taking specific medications, like blood thinners, for a few days before the test.
Other test-day instructions will likely include not eating for several hours before the test and making sure you have a ride to and from your appointment. If you dont have a ride, your doctors office might be able to help you arrange one.
During your appointment, youll be hooked to an IV line to receive sedative medication. Youll also receive a throat numbing spray or gargle. Both of these medications will keep you relaxed and free of pain during the procedure.
Often, a mouthpiece will be placed in your mouth to help keep your lips and teeth apart. The endoscope tube will then be carefully passed into your mouth and down your throat. Air might be pumped into your throat to make it easier to see your digestive tract.
An endoscopic ultrasound can be done very quickly, in as little as 15 minutes. Or, it might take over an hour. It depends on how many images are taken, what doctors find, and if doctors are also taking cell samples to biopsy.
After the endoscope and mouthpiece are removed, youll be monitored for a few hours. Your throat will be numb, and youll still feel the effects of the sedative. You wont be permitted to eat or drink anything until the numbing medication wears off.
Living With Bladder Cancer
Cancer is a life-changing experience. And although thereâs no surefire way of preventing a recurrence, you can take steps to feel and stay healthy. Eating plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and keeping to modest portions of lean meat is a great start. If you smoke, stop. Limit alcohol to one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men. Daily exercise and regular checkups will also support your health and give you peace of mind.
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The Breast Ultrasound Procedure
A breast cancer ultrasound is a quick and completely painless procedure. Ahead of your breast ultrasound, make sure to have your referral letter from your doctor with you, along with any previous scan results that may be relevant. You will want to wear clothes that are easy to remove. Leave jewellery and valuables at home and avoid putting any lotions, creams or other products on the areas to be scanned.
To begin, you will be asked to remove your clothing from the waist up. The sonographer, the medical professional administering your breast ultrasound, will spread gel on the area/s to be scanned. They will then move a small device called a transducer over your breast and the lymph nodes in your armpit.
The transducer is connected to a computer and sends high-frequency sound waves into the breast tissue. As these waves bounce back, or echo, images appear on the monitor.
The sonographer may need to press or apply pressure, but there shouldnt be any pain, and the scan should only take about 15-20 minutes.
Ultrasound is also a safer screening option for women who are pregnant, as it doesnt use radiation, and is also a commonly used screening method for patients aged under 25.