Biology Of Human Papilloma Virus Associated Cancers
E6 and E7 gene product of HPV contributes to the pathogenesis of cancer. The HPV virus integrates with the DNA within the host cell nucleus and thereby dysregulates the expression of the oncoproteins E6 and E7. Degradation of p53 is induced by E6 protein, leading to loss of p53 activity. Its degradation is accomplished through the formation of a complex among p53, E6, and E6AP. In the physiological state, p53 functions to arrest the cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and induces apoptosis to allow repair of host DNA. Further, the E7 binds to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which results in the loss of control over cell cycle.
Pap Test Results: What Normal Abnormal And Unsatisfactory Screening Test Results Mean
Pap test results show whether cervical cells are normal or abnormal. A Pap test may also come back as unsatisfactory.
Unsatisfactory Pap test results: The lab sample may not have had enough cells, or the cells may have been clumped together or hidden by blood or mucus. Your health care provider will ask you to come in for another Pap test in 2 to 4 months.
Abnormal Pap test results: An abnormal test result may also be called a positive test result. Some of the cells of the cervix look different from the normal cells. An abnormal test result does not mean you have cancer. Your health care provider will recommend monitoring, more testing, or treatment.
Abnormal Pap test results include
How Can Hpv Cause Cancer
You cant catch cancer itself, but HPV passes from person to person and can increase the risk of cancer developing. Most of the time the body clears the infection without it causing any problems.
Sometimes, one of the high-risk types of HPV isnt cleared and stays in the body. If this happens, the virus can cause changes to the DNA inside the cells so they start to behave differently. Over time, the affected cells can start to grow out of control, which can lead to cancer.
Recommended Reading: How Long Do Radiation Treatments Take
More Information And Support About Hpv
HPV can be a really confusing topic, so you are not alone if you feel worried or unsure about it. If you have general questions about HPV, we can help:
- For emotional support, call our free Helpline on 0808 802 8000 check the opening hours >
- If you have a medical question, you can submit it to our panel of experts. Please note that our experts cannot give advice on your individual situation as they are not your doctor. Use our Ask the Expert service >
We cannot give you medical advice or answers about any results. In this case, it is best to speak with your GP or nurse.
Thanks and references
Thank you to all the experts who checked the accuracy of this information, and the volunteers who shared their personal experience to help us develop it.
Does Hpv Cause Health Problems
In most cases , HPV goes away on its own within two years without health problems. But when HPV does not go away, it can cause health problems like genital warts and cancer.
Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or group of bumps in the genital area. They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower. A healthcare provider can usually diagnose warts by looking at the genital area.
Recommended Reading: Does Iodine Help With Radiation
Does Having Hpv Change My Treatment Or My Chance Of Being Cured
People with head and neck cancer caused by HPV respond to treatment better than people who dont have cancer caused by HPV. Both types of cancers are treated the same way. Treatment decisions are based on the tumors size and location, the stage of the disease, and a persons general health. Researchers are studying whether cancer treatments should change when HPV is involved.
Treatment For Cell Changes Caused By Hpv Infection
Although HPV infection itself cannot be treated, there are treatments for the precancerous cell changes caused by infection with high-risk HPV.
Precancerous cervical cell changes: Most women who have precancerous cervical cell changes are treated with the loop electrosurgical excision procedure , which is a method to remove the abnormal tissue.
Learn more about treatments for abnormal cervical cell changes.
HPV-related cancers: Individuals who develop an HPV-related cancer generally receive the same treatment as patients with tumors at the same site that are not related to HPV infection. However, patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer may receive different treatments than patients whose oropharyngeal cancers are not caused by HPV.
Learn more about treatment options for oropharyngeal cancer, including targeted therapy and new types of treatment such as immunotherapy being tested in clinical trials.
You May Like: Back Pain That Radiates To Ribs
Hpv And Cervical Cancer
A large majority of cervical cancer is due to the human papillomavirus .
HPV is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract. Most sexually active women and men will be infected at some point in their lives, and some may be repeatedly infected. More than 90% of the infected populations eventually clear the infection.
Cervical cancer is by far the most common HPV-related disease. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer can be attributed to HPV infection.
Although most HPV infections clear up on their own and most pre-cancerous lesions resolve spontaneously, there is a risk for all women that HPV infection may become chronic and pre-cancerous lesions progress to invasive cervical cancer.
It takes 15 to 20 years for cervical cancer to develop in women with normal immune systems. It can take only 5 to 10 years in women with weakened immune systems, such as those with untreated HIV infection
Human Papilloma Virus And Incidence Trends For Head And Neck Cancer
Oral infection with HPV is recognized as an independent cause of oropharyngeal cancer. Although a low prevalence of oral HPV has been demonstrated in the general population, studies have shown that 95% of HPV-associated head and neck cancers are HPV 16 related. HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers typically develop near the base of the tongue and in the tonsils. Sixty-three percent of oropharyngeal cancers each year are associated with HPV infection. A higher incidence of HPV-associated oropharynegeal cancers has been related to an increased number of sexual partners and younger adults. A 4-fold higher incidence has been observed in men as compared to women, and the association of sexual practices with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers suggest that sexual partners of cervical cancer patients may be at a higher risk of developing HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers.
Also Check: How To Check For Cervical Cancer
What Is Penile Cancer
Penile cancer is rare in the United States. It accounts for less than 1% of all cancers in males in the U.S., with roughly 2,000 new cases and 470 deaths yearly. When it’s diagnosed and treated early, penile cancer has a five-year survival rate of over 80%.
There are seven kinds of penile cancer, and squamous cell carcinomas account for about 95% of all cases.
Screening For Hpv And Cell Changes Caused By Hpv
Screening tests are used to check for disease when there are no symptoms. The goal of screening for cervical cancer is to find precancerous cell changes at an early stage, before they become cancer and when treatment can prevent cancer from developing.
Currently, cervical cancer is the only HPV-caused cancer for which FDA-approved screening tests are available. Screening for cervical cancer is an important part of routine health care for people who have a cervix. This includes women and transgender men who still have a cervix. Cervical cancer screening tests include the HPV test that checks cervical cells for high-risk HPV, the Pap test that checks for cervical cell changes that can be caused by high-risk HPV, and the HPV/Pap cotest that checks for both high-risk HPV and cervical cell changes.
Sometimes an HPV infection can become active again after many years. Learn more about what it means if a woman has a positive HPV test after many years of negative tests.
Also Check: Good Gifts For Someone Going Through Chemo
Timing Of Hpv Vaccination
Because HPV is transmitted sexually, the HPV vaccine offers the most protection when given before a person becomes sexually active. Those who are already sexually active may get less benefit from the vaccine. This is because sexually active people may have been exposed to some of the HPV types targeted by the vaccine.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine HPV vaccination for girls and boys at age 11 or 12 years, and the series can be started at age 9 years. For young people who werent vaccinated within the age recommendations, HPV vaccination is recommended up to age 26 years. Some adults between the ages of 27 and 45 years who are not already vaccinated may decide to get the HPV vaccine after talking with their doctor about their risk of new HPV infections.
Children who start the vaccine series before age 15 need two doses to be protected. Those who receive their first dose at age 15 or older need three doses to be protected. Learn more about HPV vaccines and how they protect against cervical cancer and other types of cancer.
Does Hpv Infection Cause Symptoms
Infection with high-risk HPV does not usually cause symptoms. The precancerous cell changes caused by a persistent HPV infection at the cervix rarely cause symptoms, which is why regular cervical cancer screening is important. Precancerous lesions at other sites in the body may cause symptoms like itching or bleeding. And if an HPV infection develops into cancer, the cancer may cause symptoms like bleeding, pain, or swollen glands. Learn more about signs and symptoms of cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers.
You May Like: D Amour Center For Cancer Care
Screening And Testing For Hpv
Cancers can also be prevented with routine screening and follow up. The only routine screening method, and the most commonly known, is the cervical pap smear. However, if you feel or see abnormal changes in other parts of your anogenital or oral region, see your medical provider for further advice.
Cervical pap tests are recommended to look for abnormal cells on the cervix caused by HPV. Any abnormalities found can then be removed before they have a chance to get worse. In addition to the cervical pap test, the FDA has also recently approved HPV DNA tests for women over 25. These are not blood tests but look for HPV DNA in cervical cells. These can help determine whether a woman has any of the high-risk strains. Her physician can then recommend an appropriate course of action to prevent cancer.
Unfortunately, there is no routine standard test or screening process to detect HPV in men. There are also no standard screening protocols to detect HPV in locations in women other than the cervix. However, individuals who feel they may be at risk may want to consult their providers regarding screening options that exist but are not administered routinely.
Efforts are underway to study the best prevention and treatment methods for precancer in other parts of the anogenital area and the head and neck as the cervix is the only location routinely screened for abnormal changes related to HPV.
How Can Hpv Be Prevented
The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention both recommend HPV vaccination for both sexes. When given within recommended age groups, the vaccine, which is proven to be safe and effective by the Food and Drug Administration and the CDC, protects against diseases and cancers caused by HPV.
Also Check: Tingling Hands And Feet After Chemo
The Central Government Has Recently Written To All States And Union Territories To Create Awareness Of The Prevention Of Cervical Cancer And The Importance Of The Hpv Vaccine Among Girl Students Across The Country
What is Cervical Cancer?
- Cervical cancer starts in the cells of the cervix. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus .
- Various strains of the Human papillomavirus play a role in causing most cervical cancer that is transmitted through sexual contact.
- When exposed to HPV, the body’s immune system typically prevents the virus from harming.
- In a small percentage of people the virus survives for years, contributing to the process that causes some cervical cells to become cancer cells.
Types of HPV Vaccines available:
- Quadrivalent vaccine : It protects against four types of HPV . The latter two strains cause genital warts.
- Bivalent vaccine : It protects against HPV 16 and 18 only.
- Non-valent vaccine : It protects against nine strains of HPV.
Cervical cancer in India:
- In India, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, after breast cancer.
- India contributes the largest share of the global cervical cancer burden. India accounts for nearly one in every four deaths globally due to cervical cancer.
World Health Organisations Global strategy to eliminate cervical cancer proposes:
- The following 90-70-90 targets must be met by 2030 for countries to be on the path towards cervical cancer elimination:
- 90% of girls are fully vaccinated with the HPV vaccine by the age of 15 years.
- 70% of women are screened with a high-performance test by 35 years of age and again by 45 years of age.
- 90% of women identified with the cervical disease receive treatment .
What Are The Different Types Of Hpv How Does Hpv Spread
Most types of HPV cause “common” warts. These warts can grow anywhere on the body and are often found on the hands and feet. They are contagious and spread by touch, but they do not cause cancer.
Some types of genital HPV cause warts that vary in size, shape, and number. These viruses rarely lead to cancer. They are known as low-risk HPV. Common types of low-risk HPV include HPV-6 and HPV-11.
Other types of HPV are known as high-risk HPV. Your body’s immune system can often get rid of this infection. But some people have a lasting infection. Over time, the infection can turn normal cells into precancerous lesions or cancer.
You May Like: Can You Get Breast Cancer At 18
Can Hpv Infection Be Prevented
Theres no sure way to prevent infection with all the different types of HPV. But there are things you can do to lower your chances of being infected. There are also vaccines that can be used to protect young people from the HPV types most closely linked to cancer and genital warts.
HPV can be present for years without causing any symptoms. It doesnt always cause warts or any other symptoms. Someone can have the virus and pass it on without knowing it.
Clinical Utility Of Hpv Dna Testing
It has been established that there is variation in interpretation of ASCUS Pap smears even among expert cytopathologists . In some women, ASCUS indicates real pathology and in others it represents only a vigorous reactive change that is benign. In the United States, about 2.5 million ASCUS Pap results are reported each year . A survey of U.S. laboratories found that a median of 2.9% of all Pap smears are reported as ASCUS, with 10% of laboratories reporting more than 9% ASCUS results . Several strategies are currently in use to manage patients with ASCUS Pap smear results. Some clinicians repeat the Pap smear in 4 to 6 months. Many ASCUS patients directly undergo colposcopy to detect the 10 to 20% who prove to have an underlying higher-grade lesion . Identifying women at high risk by testing for HPV DNA avoids unnecessary colposcopy procedures .3). Patients with ASCUS who are positive for high-risk HPV DNA are referred for colposcopy. Those who are negative for HPV DNA undergo a repeat Pap smear at 6 months and 12 months. If these are also negative, the woman is returned to a routine screening schedule.
Read Also: What To Say To Someone Starting Chemo
Treatment For Hpv Or Hpv
Theres no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for the cell changes that HPV can cause.
Cancer is easiest to treat when its found early while its small and before it has spread. Some cancer screening tests can find early cell changes caused by HPV, and these changes can be treated before they even become cancer.
Visible genital warts can be removed with prescribed medicines. They can also be treated by a health care provider.
Hpv And Oropharyngeal Cancer
Diagram of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The oral cavity includes the lips, the labial and buccal mucosa, the front two-thirds of the tongue, the retromolar pad, the floor of the mouth, the gingiva, and the hard palate. The oropharynx includes the palatine and lingual tonsils, the back one-third base of the tongue, the soft palate, and the posterior pharyngeal wall.
Human papillomavirus can cause serious health problems, including warts and cancer.
Also Check: Colon Cancer Back Pain Location
Who Is More Likely To Get Cervical Cancer
Anyone with a cervix can get cervical cancer. This includes women, trans men, non-binary people, and intersex people with a cervix.
You cannot get cervical cancer if you’ve had surgery to remove your womb and cervix .
You might also be more likely to get cervical cancer if:
- you’re under 45 cervical cancer is more common in younger people
- you have a weakened immune system, like if you have HIV or AIDS
- you have given birth to multiple children or had children at an early age
- your mother took the hormonal medicine diethylstilbestrol while pregnant with you your GP can discuss these risks with you
- you’ve had vaginal, vulval, kidney or bladder cancer in the past