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Where Does Stomach Cancer Spread To

Staging Can Be Done At Different Times

Symptoms of Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer might be staged at different times during the course of a persons treatment.

Usually, the cancer is first given a clinical stage. This is based on the results of any physical exams, biopsies, imaging tests, and procedures that have been done. The clinical stage can be used to help plan treatment.

If surgery is done to remove the cancer, the pathological stage can be determined. This is based on the results of any exams or tests that have been done, as well as the results from the surgery. Sometimes the pathological stage is different from the clinical stagefor example, if surgery finds the cancer has spread farther than could be seen on imaging tests.

Some people might get other treatments before surgery, such as chemotherapy or radiation, to try to shrink the cancer and make the surgery easier. This is known as neoadjuvant treatment. Staging might be done again after this treatment to assess how well it worked.

The table below, describing the TNM stage grouping in more detail, is based on the pathological stage of the cancer. If your cancer has been clinically staged or if you have had neoadjuvant therapy, it’s best to talk to your doctor about the specific stage for your situation.

AJCC Stage

Any N

The cancer might or might not have grown into any of the layers of the stomach wall , and it might or might not have spread to nearby lymph nodes .

The cancer has spread to distant organs such as the liver, lungs, brain, or the peritoneum .

Symptoms Of Gastric Cancer Include Indigestion And Stomach Discomfort Or Pain

These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by gastric cancer or by other conditions.

In the early stages of gastric cancer, the following symptoms may occur:

  • Indigestion and stomach discomfort.
  • Weight loss for no known reason.
  • Trouble swallowing.

Check with your doctor if you have any of these problems.

What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Stomach Cancer

The outlook for stomach cancer depends on the stage of cancer. People in the early stages of stomach cancer have a much better prognosis than those at a later stage. The 5-year survival rate for stomach cancer may be as high as 70% or as low as 6% .

Speak with your provider for a more accurate assessment of your prognosis. The type of cancer you have, its spread, your health and how your cancer responds to treatment all shape your prognosis.

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Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma: Its Association With Stage Iv Stomach Cancer

When stomach cancer spreads to the areas located near the stomach, it is referred to as regional metastasis and when it spreads to organs or parts that are far away from the stomach, it is known as distant metastasis. Sometimes, recurrent stomach cancer may also be counted as metastatic stomach cancer because distant metastasis might be observed when cancer has reoccurred after a few years.

According to the stages of stomach cancer defined by the American Cancer Society, metastatic gastric cancer occurs at stage 4 because stomach cancer, at this stage, spreads to the distant organs such as the liver, lungs, brain, or the peritoneum .

Stage IV stomach cancer is the most advanced form of stomach cancer and it cannot be cured. This type of cancer is very hard to treat but the treatment helps to keep the cancer under control, improves quality of life of patients and also helps to minimize the symptoms of stomach cancer.

Whats The Life Expectancy For Stage 4 Stomach Cancer

Stomach Cancer

When you think about life expectancy, there are some important things to keep in mind:

  • Many factors affect your prognosis, including age, overall health, and the treatments you choose. Also, everyone responds differently to treatments, and theres no way to know how your body will respond.
  • Survival rates are based on the stage at diagnosis.
  • Relative survival rates compare people who have stomach cancer with people in the general population who dont have cancer.
  • These statistics were compiled based on people diagnosed years ago. Cancer treatments change quickly. The latest treatments and increasing lifespans arent reflected in those earlier numbers.

According to the , the overall relative survival rate for all stages of stomach cancer is 31.5 percent. The five-year relative survival rate for distant stomach cancer is 5.3 percent. These figures include people diagnosed between 2009 and 2015.

Your doctor will consider your complete medical profile to help you understand your own outlook.

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What Is Stage 4 Stomach Cancer

Stomach cancer is cancer that starts in the stomach. Its staged according to how far it has spread at the time of diagnosis.

In stage 4, stomach cancer has spread through tissue, the bloodstream, or lymph system to distant parts of the body. Cancer may be found in organs such as the liver, lungs, or distant lymph nodes.

Stage 4 is also called advanced stomach cancer.

Knowing the stage of stomach cancer helps determine treatment options. It also provides a general overview of what to expect.

Keep reading to learn more about stage 4 stomach cancer, how its treated, and the five-year survival rate.

usually not curable, but its certainly treatable.

The goal of treatment is to ease symptoms and control the cancers growth. Your doctor will recommend therapies based on your age and overall health, including any other health conditions you may have. Your options also depend on specific characteristics of the cancer.

Treatment for cancer usually involves a combination of therapies. Your treatment plan can be adjusted based on how well its working. Tell your doctor if you have new symptoms along the way so they can be factored in.

Some treatments for stage 4 stomach cancer are:

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Stage Groups For Stomach Cancer

Doctors assign the stage of the cancer by combining the T, N, and M classifications .

Stage 0: This is also called carcinoma in situ. The cancer is found only on the surface of the epithelium. The cancer has not grown into any other layers of the stomach. This stage is considered an early cancer .

Stage IA: The cancer has grown into the inner layer of the wall of the stomach. It has not spread to any lymph nodes or other organs .

Stage IB: Stomach cancer is called stage IB in either of these 2 conditions:

  • The cancer has grown into the inner layers of the wall of the stomach. It has spread to 1 to 2 lymph nodes but not elsewhere .

  • The cancer has grown into the outer muscular layers of the wall of the stomach. It has not spread to the lymph nodes or other organs .

Stage IIA: Stomach cancer is called stage IIA for any of these conditions:

  • The cancer has grown into the inner layer of the wall of the stomach. It has spread to 3 to 6 lymph nodes but not elsewhere .

  • The cancer has grown into the outer muscular layers of the wall of the stomach. It has spread to 1 to 2 lymph nodes but not elsewhere .

  • The cancer has grown through all of the layers of the muscle into the connective tissue outside the stomach. It has not grown into the peritoneal lining or serosa or spread to any lymph nodes or surrounding organs .

Stage IIB: Stomach cancer is called stage IIB for any of these conditions:

Stage IIIA: Stomach cancer is called stage IIIA for any of these conditions:

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How Can I Prevent Stomach Cancer

You cant prevent stomach cancer, but you can reduce your risk if you:

  • Treat H. pylori infection if you test positive. H. pylori infection is a significant risk factor for developing stomach cancer.
  • Treat ulcers, gastritis and other stomach conditions promptly. Untreated stomach conditions, especially those caused by H. pylori bacteria, increase your risk of stomach cancer.
  • Eat healthy. Eating a healthy diet thats high in fruits and vegetables and low in salts and red meats can reduce your stomach cancer risk. Foods high in vitamin C, beta-carotene and carotenoids, such as citrus fruits, leafy green vegetables and carrots, are good sources of key nutrients.
  • Avoid smoking and using tobacco products. Tobacco use increases your risk of stomach cancer and many other cancers.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. What counts as a healthy weight varies from person to person. Ask your provider what a healthy weight means for you.

/13how To Prevent Stomach Cancer

Stomach Cancer, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

Eating a diet full of colorful fruits and green vegetables may reduce the risk of stomach cancer. Also include plenty of whole grain foods, such as whole grain bread, cereals, pasta and rice. Researchers have also found that limiting the amount of alcohol and avoiding tomato products may also help in prevention of cancer. Avoiding pickled foods, salted meats and fish can also help to protect your stomach. Some studies show that increasing plant-based foods reduces the risk of fatal stomach cancer in men, but not women.

Physical exercise has also been linked to a reduced risk of several cancers. It is important to maintain healthy weight if you are overweight or obese.

Quitting smoking will also prevent stomach cancer risk, and do not start smoking if you dont smoke currently

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How Is Stomach Cancer Treated

There are several approaches to treating stomach cancer. In many cases, surgery can be avoided.

In the early stages when the cancer is limited to the superficial layers of the stomach, the cancer can be removed through an upper endoscopy performed by a gastroenterologist. In this procedure , the tumor is dissected from the rest of the gastric wall and removed through the mouth.

Once the tumor invades beyond the superficial layers of the stomach, surgery will be required to remove the stomach and connect the esophagus to the small intestines to allow for digestion.

Radiation therapy uses high-powered beams of energy to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy uses chemicals to kill the cancer cells. These treatments are generally combined.

There are also several drugs to treat stomach cancer. Treatment depends on how severe the cancer is and is decided upon by a doctor after diagnosis.

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How Is Gastric Cancer Staged

The stage of the cancer can be determined after your testing is done. The staging of a cancer describes how much cancer has grown within the stomach as well as if it has spread. This is very important in terms of what treatment is offered to each individual patient. The staging system used to describe gastric tumors is the “TNM system”, as described by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. The TNM systems are used to describe many types of cancers. They have three components

  • T-describes the size/location/extent of the “primary” tumor in the stomach.
  • N-describes if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes
  • M-describes if the cancer has spread to other organs .

The T, N, M, are then combined to come up with a stage from 0-IV, with IV being the most advanced. The staging system is very complex. The entire staging system is outlined at the end of this article. Though complicated, the staging system helps healthcare providers determine the extent of the cancer, and in turn, make treatment decisions for your cancer.

Challenges In The Preoperative Diagnosis Of Lymph Node Metastasis In Gastric Cancer

Symptoms Of Stomach Cancer

Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis is essential for planning proper surgical treatment. However, it is difficult , and two factors make the preoperative diagnosis of nodal metastasis difficult: The regional lymph nodes are in the abdominal cavity, and approximately half of lymph node metastases are microscopic . According to a recent study on diagnostic imaging , which classified metastatic lymph nodes based on microscopic metastatic morphology, 42.5% of metastatic lymph nodes in gastric cancer were of the small nodular type and peripheral type. Lesion volumes for these types are smaller than those for the large nodular and diffuse types.

Positron emission tomography-CT and magnetic resonance imaging have also been used for preoperative imaging of lymph node metastasis , although neither has surpassed the diagnostic ability of MDCT . It is difficult to visualize microscopic metastases, even with PET-CT . Although attempts have been made to diagnose nodal metastasis with MR lymphography using an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast medium , no sufficient diagnostic results have been reported.

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Where Does Metastatic Stomach Cancer Spread To

Metastatic, or stage 4, stomach cancer has advanced and spread beyond the stomach and nearby lymph nodes to distant areas of the body. This type of cancer is most likely to spread to the liver or peritoneum, which is the membrane lining of the abdominal cavity. Other areas where stomach cancer commonly spreads include the lungs and bones.

Stomach cancer that has spread to distant areas can present a variety of symptoms. These include stomach pain, bloody stool, nausea, abdominal bloating and trouble swallowing. Additional symptoms related to where the cancer has spread are also possible. For example, if stomach cancer has metastasized to the liver, jaundice may occur. Or, if the lungs are affected, symptoms may include shortness of breath, difficulty breathing or a persistent cough.

What Are The Symptoms Of Stomach Cancer In Dogs

The clinical signs of stomach tumors are limited to the digestive tract. Here are the warning signs of stomach cancer in dogs:

As you can see, cancer does not always manifest with a large mass or lump. Also, in the case of stomach tumors, the signs of cancer are not specific. It is advisable to seek help from a veterinary doctor as soon as you notice something unusual with your dog.

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For Connecting And Sharing During A Cancer Journey

Anyone with cancer, their caregivers, families, and friends, can benefit from help and support. The American Cancer Society offers the Cancer Survivors Network , a safe place to connect with others who share similar interests and experiences. We also partner with CaringBridge, a free online tool that helps people dealing with illnesses like cancer stay in touch with their friends, family members, and support network by creating their own personal page where they share their journey and health updates.

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Stomach Cancer

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Stomach cancer doesnt typically cause symptoms during the early stages. Even the most common early signs of stomach cancer often unexplained weight loss and stomach pain dont usually show up until the cancer is more advanced.

Symptoms of stomach cancer include:

  • Loss of appetite.
  • Black stool or vomiting blood.
  • Feeling bloated or gassy after eating.
  • Stomach pain, often above your belly button.
  • Feeling full even after eating a small meal or snack.

Many of these symptoms are common in other conditions, too. See your provider to check if your symptoms are a sign of stomach cancer or another disease.

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There Are Three Ways That Cancer Spreads In The Body

Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood:

  • Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
  • Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
  • Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.

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Stage 2 Stomach Cancer

Stage 2 stomach cancer is divided into two categories:

  • Stage 2A stomach cancer occurs when one of the following conditions are met:
  • The cancer has grown beneath the top layer of cells. It has not reached the main muscle layer, but it has spread to between three and six lymph nodes near the stomach. Distant sites have not been affected.
  • The cancer has grown into the main muscle layer of the stomach. It has spread to one or two nearby lymph nodes but has not spread to distant sites.
  • The cancer has grown through the main muscle layer into the subserosa but has not grown through all the layers to the outside of the stomach. It has not spread to any nearby lymph nodes, tissues, or organs outside of the stomach.
  • Stage 2B occurs when one of the following conditions are met:
  • The cancer has grown beneath the top layer of cells but not into the main muscle layer. It has spread to seven or more lymph nodes near the stomach. Tissues and organs outside the stomach remain unaffected.
  • The cancer has grown into the main muscle layer. It has spread to between three and six lymph nodes near the stomach, but it has not spread to any tissues or organs outside the stomach.
  • The cancer has grown into the subserosa layer, but not completely through all the layers to the outside of the stomach. It has spread to one or two nearby lymph nodes, but has not spread to tissues or organs outside the stomach.
  • Stomach cancer treatment: The care you need is one call away

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    How Stomach Cancer Spreads

    There are 3 ways stomach cancer can spread:

    • directly the cancer can spread from the stomach into nearby tissues and organs, such as the pancreas, colon, small intestine and peritoneum
    • through the lymphatic system the lymphatic system is a series of glands located throughout your body, similar to the blood circulatory system the glands produce specialised cells needed by your immune system to fight infection
    • through the blood which can cause the cancer to spread from the stomach to other parts of the body, most commonly the liver

    Stomach cancer that spreads to another part of the body is known as metastatic stomach cancer.

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